Business Communication

Media or Modes of Communication

The medium is a message in itself. It affects the quality and force of the message. Each medium or mode of communication entails some quality or quantity deviation. It has been observed that we listen only to every fifth world we hear.

According to Robert M.Fulmer the following are the media through which communication travels.

1. Thinking

Communication starts with the idea originated. Thinking creates the message we want to convey. Organized thinking and meditation make a person unique, different, and even charismatic. Thinking is the foundation of every communication. The main difference between a same and insane person is that the former enjoys the power of thinking while the latter does not.

2. Action

An action is in itself a language. Action speaks louder than the words. Sometimes body language and facial expressions are stronger than the spoken or written words. Actions are the expressions of feelings. The message and feeling travel through body actions. Acting in the stage drama or film is an example.

3. Observation

Carefully and thoughtfully seeing is observing. It is systematic watching. It is directing watchful and critical attention with a view a ascertain a fact. Observation forms perception.

Wrong observation is possible. Things may happen so quickly or confusingly that what one sees may not be fact. The communicator should not allow possible distortion in his message caused by his bias and impression.

4. Speaking

Some people are loquacious and some are reticent. You ain’t learning’ nothing’ when you’re talking’. Wise businessmen develop a talent for keeping other persons talking to elicit maximum information or secret from them. Speakers gain less than listeners. However, there are many professions which require more speaking, such as teaching, selling, and commentary. The doctors, on the other hand, should spend a great deal of time in listening to the patients. Talkative persons tend to let on secrets unconsciously.

5. Listening

When you are listening you are learning. Those people are wise who have developed, the habit of listening that improves concentration. Listening is also used as a medical therapy. This type of therapy is known as “um-hmm psychology” because the counselor occasionally repeats only um-hmm the entire therapy interview. We should also learn to listen with the third year which means to hear the message that lies in between the lines.

6. Writing

According to study, during business hours a manager spends ten percent of his time in writing. Writing, is one of the most important modes of communication because it constitutes a permanent record. Writing calls for correct grammar, syntax, diction proper punctuation, simple words and sentences, and proper organization of the idea.

7. Reading

Reading is learning. According to a research a manager spends about four and a half hours reading report, memorandum, and other materials per day. Students are taught to develop reading skills. A person with a reading habit as always greater knowledge than the person without.

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Business Communication


Exchange of ideas between two human being.

BUSINESS: Gainful activities, service/goods exchange at value.

The business of today is

  1. Complex
  2. Decision
  3. Time pressure


1. Verbal 2. Non-Verbal

with the help of the words /Without words


-Facial expression

Oral /Written

-Interviewing -Memos/Letters

-Presentation -E-Mail

-Speaking -Faxes

-Telephoning -Quotations/Purchases Orders.

-Meeting -Report

-News Letters /Circular


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  1. The vary success of an organization is built upon effective communication .
  2. The business of an organization is run on interchange of information, plans, ideas, proposals, use of data, and conducting discussions, meetings, and research which are all different forms of communication .
  3. In an organization the manager has to read, speak, write , listen ,observe and supervise that are all media of communication .He uses letters, reports, and memos for written communication .
  4. Business firms must send information about their goods and services to consumers and customers. They do so by advertising, publicity, personal, selling, and other sales promotional techniques.

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For Communication , ability and skills are required:

  • must be able to communicate effectively with all levels of managements .
  • Must have substantial experiences, training in oral and written communication and demonstrate good writing skills.
  • Be able to prepare special analysis, research reports, and proposals.
  • Must have ability to communicate and sell ideas, firm, and products.
  • Need ability to compare effective correspondence .
  • Must be able to cultivate and maintain good customer relationship.
  • Need skills in gathering, analyzing, and interpreting data and in writing analytical reports.


Encoding is dressing your thoughts with the meaningful language. Then the use of this language, oral, written or nonverbal, becomes a message . The wording of he message should observe the art of empathy so that it reaches the receiver correctly and understandably. Encoding includes writing, speaking, and other communication means.


Decoding is done by the receiver. His decoding of the message depends upon his past background, perception, knowledge of the language, understanding ,viewpoint and relations with the sender. Decoding is reading , listening and understanding .

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There are six planning steps:

  • Know the purpose of the message
  • Visualize your reader or listener
  • Choose the ideas to transmit
  • Get all the facts to backup these ideas
  • Organize your ideas in the most effective order
  • Revise and proofread

Know the purpose :

You must know why you should write and what should be written . The purpose may be sale , good will , request , inquiry or refusal etc.

Visualize your reader or listener :

It is better for the sender to understand the receiver. You should know his background , qualification , education , position , status in the company , desire , expectations , problems , circumstances and possible reactions to your request. Also he/she is superior , subordinate , laborer , professional or technical person , colleague , single or married , man or woman , young or old , new or long time customer .

Choose the ideas :

It depends upon the type of message . Before working jot down the points to be covered in communication , and then bring them in order of importance and urgency .

Get all the facts:

To explain facts and figures , visual aids may be utilized , augmenting the communication.

Organize ideas :

Once the ideas have been jotted down , they should be properly arranged and organized . Failing to organize will fail the objectives of the message .

Revise and proofread :

Short communications are easy to transmit or dictate without revising or proofreading them . The reason is to ensure that the message fulfills the principles of communication.

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1 .Internal communication

  • Horizontal / crosswise communication
  • Downward communication
  • Upward communication

2. External communication.

1. Internal communication :

When communication flows from one person or part to the other within an organization is called internal communication. It has following channels or kinds :

a. Horizontal / crosswise communication :

Its between personnel in one department and personnel of equal , lower or superior status in other department . It facilitates subordinates to keep their superiors informed of their interdepartmental activities.

b. Download communication :

It flows from superior to subordinates ,it is refer to as download communication. Subordinate gets the information , guidelines , orders , advice and the Manager gives them to subordinate. Employees can have understanding of organization goals , policies and products . Boss – subordinate relation is improved .

c. Upward communication:

It flows from subordinates to superiors . It includes daily reports , sales reports , explanations , reviews , summaries , statements and comments.

2. External communication:

  • It is inter company communication
  • Well – worded letters , reports , and proposals improve business relations
  • Oral communication is also used
  • Disgruntled customers are satisfied
  • New customers are discovered
  • New dimensions and depths of the market are exploited
  • It improves goodwill , public image , safety , productivity , profits and public credibility.

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The following principles should be followed to improve communication

Interpretation of words:

A basic general principle of communication is that the words, symbols that the sender uses in sending the message must have the same meaning in the mind of the receiver, so that the message sent and the message received is identical .


  • Reality always changing . The meanings of words are not in the words,
  • They are in use or according to our perception .


  • When information is according to our hopes, views and attitude we tend to
  • Accept it and react favorably on the other hand, if the information is against our will, desire, or attitude we tend to reject or react negatively to it or even toward the informer.


  • Emotional conditions of a communicator is important when he receives or sends the message undesirable emotions like anger, fear, hatred, worry adversely affect any kind of information .


  • Some people refuse to consider mew facts . They have limited or incorrect knowledge . They don’t welcome new ideas and facts .


  • When the message has taken the form a direct request with a direct approach , the first paragraph of it must mention the main idea directly .
  • The main idea may contain the following material:
  • It may be a request , statement or question .
  • The main idea may include reasons for the direct statement

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Reader – benefit

Reader – interest theme


Descriptive details

Psychological appeals

Reader benefits


Statement of request

Conviction material to help create reader’s desire to grant request


Clear statement of action desired

Easy action

Dated action when desired

Special inducement

Reader benefit plug

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Business letters , memos and reports can be arranged by the direct ( deductive ) or indirect (( inductive ) approach.

DIRECT APPROACH ( For good news ):

It has following parts :

  • Best news or main idea
  • Explanation
  • All necessary and desirable details
  • Resale material
  • Educational material
  • Sales promotional material.

Positive friendly close :

  • Appreciation
  • Clear statement of action desired
  • Easy action
  • Dated action when desirable
  • Willingness to help further
  • Reader benefit


  • Main idea
  • Request , main statement or question
  • Reasons , if desirable
  • Explanation
  • All necessary and desirable details
  • Numbered questions , if helpful
  • Easy reading devices
  • Courteous close , with motivation to action
  • Clean statement of action desired
  • Easy action
  • Data action when desirable
  • Appreciation and goodwill

INDIRECT APPROACH ( For bad news ):


  • Pleasant or neutral statement


  • Necessary details tactfully stated.
  • Pertinent favorable , then unfavorable, facts.
  • Reader-benefits reason


  • Offer of additional help or suggestions .


  • Appreciation
  • Invitation to future action
  • Clear statement of action desired
  • Easy action
  • Dated action where desirable
  • Willingness to help further
  • Reader benefit and goodwill

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DEF: Non written communication is referred to as oral communication .


1. Know the purpose before reporting

2. Know to collect , classify interpret and organize our material .

3. Use the visual aids

4. Orient the listener in the beginning, give details in the text and summarize at the

end .

5. Easier to express .

6. Speak more for more practice in speaking and expressing .

7. Accent must be correct, spelling and punctuation are no problem

8. Easy to adjust the message .

9. Have the aid of facial expression , tone of voice and gestures in expression .


There are four methods

1. Extemporaneous method:

Speaker communicates on the groundwork of pre-planned outlines or notes e.g. comments, quotations, statistics, facts, figures ,etc.

2. Manuscript reading method:

Speakers often looks at his audience, and sometimes speak out of written manuscript to emphasize and elaborate some point .

3. Memorization Method:

Speaker communicates by memory . Before delivering the speech , must has the theme of the message .

4.Impromptu method

The speakers communicates, training the message . It refers to without preparation .

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