Manpower Planning

Advantages benefits of Planning

  1. Provide a sense of direction.

Without planning manager would fail to make proper decisions , and hance there would be chaos ,not activity in the organisation. Planing desired decision making and efforts on guided path leading to the desired destination.

  1. Offsets (balance ) future uncertainty and change.

Uncertainty and risk are inevitably associated with business and its operations. Through planing cannot eliminate these two element plans of nature and risk because they provide a better understanding of likely future events.

  1. Focuses attention on objective and results.

Organisation exists because people have common objective. Managers are charge of organisation for the purpose of attaining results .if attention are not focused on objective and results.

  1. Causes efficient operations.

Planing make things occur ,improves the competitive strength of the organisation, guides proper utilisation channels for resources and facilities integrates resources and efforts, aligns internal and external environment

  1. Provides the basis for decentralization

Decentralisation of authority signifies dispersal of decision making power to the lowest level in the organisation .Well-designed plans serve as guides to subordinates and reduce the risk involved in delegation of authority.

  1. Guides Rational decision making

Decisions are primarily future oriented .plans cover to the future activities without plans there is no sound basis for making future oriented decision

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Principles of staffing

  • Principle of the objective of staffing:

The objective of managerial staffing is to ensure that organization roles are filled by those qualified personnel who are able and willing to occupy them.

  • Principle of staffing:

This principle rests on an important body of knowledge concerning management practices. Those organizations that have no established job definition, no effective appraisals, and no system for training and development will have to rely on coincidence or sources to fill the positions with able managers.

  • Principle of job definition:

Since organizational roles are occupied by people with different needs, these roles must have many dimensions such as pay, status, power, discretion that induce managers to perform.

  • Principle of managerial appraisal:

The more clearly verifiable objectives and required managerial activities are identified, the more precise can be the appraisal of managers against these criteria.

  • Principle of open competition:

The more an enterprise is committed to the assurance of quality management, the more it will encourage open competition among all candidates for management positions.

  • Principle of management training and development:

The more management training and development are integrated with the management process and enterprise objectives, the more effective the development programs and activities will be.

  • Principle of training objectives:

The more precisely the training objectives are stated, the more likely are the chances of achieving them. The analysis of training needs is the basis for training objectives that give direction to development and facilitate the measurement of the training efforts.

  • Principle of continuing development:

The more an enterprise is committed to managerial excellence, the more it requires that managers practice continuing self development. This principle suggests that in a fast changing and competitive environment, managers cannot stop learning. Instead, they have to update their managerial knowledge continuously, reevaluate their approaches to managing, and improve their managerial skills and performance to achieve enterprise objectives.

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Staffing

Staffing involves finding the right people, with the right skills, abilities, and fit, who may be hired or already working for the company (organization) or may be working for competing companies.

Staffing is the systematic approach to the problem of selecting, training, motivating and retaining professional and non professional personnel in any organization.

Staffing is a logical operation that consists of several interdependent actions as given below:

  • Identifying the type and amount of service needed by agency client

  • Determining the personnel categories that have the knowledge and skill to determine the needed service measures.

  • Predicting the number of personnel in each job category that will be needed to meet anticipated service demands.

  • Obtaining, budgeted positions for the number in each job category needed to service for the expected type and number of client.

  • Recruiting personnel from suitable applicants.

  • Combining personnel into desired configurations by unit and shift.

  • Orienting personnel to fulfill the assigned responsibilities.

  • Assigning responsibilities for client services to available personnel.

Staffing involves the manpower planning:

Manpower planning may be defined as a strategy for the acquisition, utilization, improvement, and preservation of the human resources of an organization. it is a technique for procurement , development, allocation, and utilization of human resources in an organization.

The following are the number and types of personnel needed to fulfill the philosophy, met fiscal planning responsibilities and carryout the chosen patient care management organization.

  • Recruit, interview, select and assign personnel based on established job description performance standards.

  • Use organizational resources for induction and orientation.

  • Ascertain that each employee is adequately socialized to organizational values and unit norms.

  • Use creative and flexible scheduling based on patient care needs to increase the productivity and retention.

  • Develop a program of staff education that will assist employees meeting the goals of the organization.

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Planning and Policy Development

TERMINOLOGY

Core Competency – a central or important capacity of an organization

Demand – the amount of resources needed by an organization

Forecasting– involves making the best possible judgment about some future event

Human Resource Information System (HRIS) – technological system used to collect, store, and retrieve employee data

Human Resource Planning – a process that attempts to maintain appropriate staffing levels of qualified employees to achieve organizational objectives (supply and demand). Efficient and effective human resource planning means efficient use of resources and implementation of systematic strategies to meet objectives. Business objectives are translated into skills and abilities needed to achieve specific job requirements to meet the demands in the future business environment.

Labor Market Analysis – process of monitoring external staffing sources, considering the unemployment rate, characteristics of the labor force, and local training programs

Organizational Capacity – ability of an organization to pursue and maintain a competitive advantage for the products and services it offers

Planning – process of determining organizational objectives and selecting a future course of action

Policy – a general statement that serves to guide decision making

Procedure – a guide to action usually to achieve a specific purpose

Rule – specifies what is required

Skill Inventories – collect and consolidate basic information about all of the organization’s employees

Standing Plans – used repeatedly in managerial situations that recur

Strategic Human Resource Management – the linking of the human resource management strategic goals and objectives in order to improve business performance and develop organizational culture

Strategic planning – process of determining strategic objectives and actions needed to achieve the organization’s mission

Succession Charts – list key positions and display information on their incumbents and the readiness of different candidates for promotion to the position

Succession Planning– process by which one or more candidates are identified for key posts. It is allows for a broader candidate search, faster decisions, and allows for the auditing of a talent pool. Succession planning fosters a corporate culture as a group of people share key skills, experiences, and values seen important to the organization

Supply – the amount of resources available to an organization

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POLICIES ON LATENESS SHOULD INCLUDE:

  • What time work begins

  • How long past that time is considered late

  • How to schedule and report planned and unplanned late arrivals

  • How may late arrivals and are permitted per year

  • What disciplinary steps may apply to excessive or chronic lateness

EXPLAIN WHY IT IS IMPORTANT TO BE ON TIME

  • Make sure hours worked are equal to wages received

  • Demonstrate that a job is a serious commitment

  • Respect the time and needs of others

EXPLAIN HOW PAY POLICIES APPLY TO LATENESS

  • Hourly employees are paid only for time actually worked

  • Exempt employees wages for lateness may not be docked (FLSA Regulations)

  • Employers may ask exempt employees to make up time missed due to lateness.

KEEP RECORDS OF EMPLOYEE LATENESS

  • Keep time records, (recording sheets or time clocks)

  • Lateness records are valuable if disciplinary steps are needed

  • Attendance should be noted in employee records and performance appraisals

TALK PRIVATELY WITH EMPLOYEES WHO ARE OFTEN LATE

  • Point out number of times they have arrived late. Note impact on work and on others

  • Ask for a explanation of frequent lateness

  • Listen closely to employee’s response to help plan next steps

TRY TO HELP EMPLOYEES RESOLVE PROBLEMS THAT CAUSE LATENESS

  • Work starting time may conflict with some employee’s family or commuting schedules

  • An employee may wait to leave for work until children are picked up for school

  • The bus or train schedule may force the employee to arrive very early or somewhat late

  • The employee may have a medical problem that requires early morning treatment

SHOW UNDERSTANDING OF THE EMPLOYEE’S CONFLICTS

RESTATE THE IMPORTANCE OF WORKING HOURS THAT ARE FAIR TO THE ORGANIZATION, COWORKERS, AND CUSTOMERS

EXPLORE SCHEDULE MODIFICATION THAT COULD FIT YOUR POLICY AND ELIMINATE THE LATENESS PROBLEM

  • Look at flextime, job sharing, or telecommuting if these options are applicable

  • See if the employee could start and leave a little later to better fit a train or bus schedule

EXPLORE BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION THAT COULD IMPROVE THE EMPLOYEE’S ON-TIME ARRIVAL

  • Encourage the employee to set his or her watch ahead or buy a LOUD alarm clock

TAKE DISCIPLINARY STEPS IF NECESSARY

  • Follow progressive disciplinary steps

  • Be sure the situation calls for discipline

  • Be sure you are aware of any reasons for lateness and the employee’s understanding of the problem

  • Apply discipline consistently

USE POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT TO ENCOURAGE AND REWARD BEING ON TIME

  • Tell on-time arrivals you notice and appreciate their promptness (include in performance appraisal)

  • Credit employees who improve their on-time performance

  • Consider group rewards when everyone is consistently on time and working hard

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Organizing and Designing Jobs

TERMINOLOGY

Autonomy – the extent to which employees are free to schedule their own activities, decide work procedures, and select necessary equipment

Class– a group of jobs with similar duties and responsibilities

Class series – vertical group of two or more classes on basis of type of work and difficulty

Compressed work schedule – a job design strategy that allows the employee flexibility in the number of days worked during a workweek

Cross-training – training employees in different tasks within the organization. This creates more flexibility in staffing.

Extrinsic rewards – payoffs granted to individuals by others (money, praise, recognition)

Flextime – a design strategy that allows an individual some flexibility in the hour to work

Intrinsic rewards – internal payoffs ( sense of accomplishment)

Job– can be several positions that are identical with respect to duties and responsibilities

Job family – a grouping of jobs with similar characteristics

Job design – the process of defining tasks and the work arrangements to accomplish them. Includes job content, identifying work methods, and relating the job others within the organization. Job design is influenced by employee factors, resource availability, technology, legislation and regulations, and managerial philosophy.

Job enlargement – a job design strategy that focuses on increasing the number and variety of an employee’s tasks

Job enrichment – a job design strategy that focuses on the needs of the individual employee by allowing greater responsibility for the work. Has a high level of intrinsic rewards and a low degree of task specialization

Job rotation – a job design strategy that shifts employees from one job to another in the organization

Job sharing – a design strategy that allows more than one employee to share one position

Job simplification – has a low intrinsic reward and a high degree of task specialization

Job specialization (division of labor) originated in the Industrial Revolution – a system of job design where an employee does only one limited part of the organization’s total work

Knowledge – a body of information applied directly to the performance of a function

Occupational group – a grouping of classes based on the general function or character of duties

Performance feedback – provides employees with information about how well they are doing

Position – a collection of duties and responsibilities carried out by one person

Quality circles – small groups of employees who meet regularly to identify work problems and recommend solutions

Realistic job preview – informs job candidates of the “organization realities of a job so they can more accurately evaluate their own job expectations.

Routine- a limited number of activities repeated over and over

Skill Variety – the extent to which a job demands the performance of a wide range of activities. The more variety allows more creativity and requires more education, training, and experience.

Task – a single identifiable job activity

Task identity – extent to which a job allows employees to perform an entire piece of work

Task significance – is the impact of the job on the lives and work of others

Telecommuting – a job design strategy that allows employees to establish offices and work primarily out of their homes

STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING JOB DESIGN

  1. Combine tasks

  2. Create natural work units

  3. Establish client relationships

  4. Expand jobs vertically

  5. Open feedback channels

TYPES OF JOBS THAT CAN BENEFIT FROM SPECIALIZATION

  1. Those that are time consuming and have a higher labor content

  2. Those that are frequently recurring and have a large demand

  3. Those that present quality problems due to rejects or reworks

  4. Those with potential to bottleneck the system limiting output

  5. Those that are unsafe, unpleasant, or fatiguing

  6. Those with extremely low or extremely high wages (including overtime)

JOB TRAITS

  1. Skill variety

  2. Task identity

  3. Task significance (job enlargement can increase task significance)

  4. Autonomy (use job enrichment to increase)

  5. Feedback

SOURCES OF MOTIVATION (NON-MONETARY)

(Money is a short-term motivator)

  1. Praise

  2. Recognition

  3. Respect

  4. Promotions

TYPES OF DEPARTMENTALIZATION IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Most governments use a combination of departmentalization. How jobs are organized into work groups helps to develop appropriate pay and classification systems.

  1. Functional – grouping of activities based on type of work

  2. Geographic – grouping activities based on the location of work

  3. Customer – grouping activities based on user of a service

  4. Project – grouping diverse activities across functional lines to carry out complex tasks or missions

APPLICATIONS TO LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Most jobs in state and local government are knowledge, skills, and abilities rather than a sequence of tasks or duties. Job redesign is restricted by the classification system of position management which begins with a request for a study and ends with the approval or disapproval at higher levels.

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Analyzing Jobs and Writing Job Descriptions

TEMINOLOGY

Adverse Impact – when the selection rate for any protected group is less that 80% (4/5) of the selection rate for the majority group or less than 80% of the group’s representation in the relevant labor market, discrimination exits.

Job analysis – a systematic way to gather and analyze information about the content and human requirement of jobs, and the context in which jobs are performed. Without an accurate profile of each job, what skills, experience and qualities are necessary to do the job then human resource planning is difficult, training and development cannot be carried out meaningfully and performance management and recruitment and selection will be carried out in an information vacuum.

Job content – concerned wit the responsibilities and tasks an employee performs

Job description – indicates the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job. It identifies what is done, why it is done, where it is done, and how it is done. It sets out the nature of the relationships between a specific position and other positions within and outside the organization and outlines the areas of the position’s expected contribution to the achievement of divisional or overall organizational goals.

Job specifications – a listing of knowledge, skills, and abilities, (SKA’s) an individual needs to perform a job satisfactorily. A job specification is a formal outline describing the place of the position within the organization, the positions function and purpose, and the collection of duties, responsibilities. (See competencies)

Job evaluation – provides a systematic basis for determining the relative worth of jobs within the organziation

Job responsibilities – (work behaviors) obligations to perform certain tasks or duties

Competencies – basic characteristics that can be linked to enhanced performance by individuals or team of individuals (see job specifications). These are used in compensation, hiring decision, orientation and training programs, and information provided to employees who want to upgrade their qualifications for promotion.

Competency model – a validated decision took, correlated to job activities that describe key knowledge, skills, and abilities for performing a specific job.

Subject matter expert – experienced job incumbents and supervisors who provide advice on work, content, worker requirements, and performance standards to job analysts and test developers

Class specification – a description of a group of jobs that are similar in duties and responsibilities, have the same entrance requirements, and receive the same rate of pay

Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA) – targeted private industry initially setting a minimum wage for workers and requiring overtime for hours worked over 40 per week, time keeping records and reporting. This Act is administered by the Department of Labor. In 1985 the U. S. Supreme Court brought all functions of local government under the provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act.

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) – This Act protects people with disabilities from job discrimination. An employer may not make any pre-employment inquiries about whether an applicant has a disability either on application forms, in job interviews, or in background or reference checks. In the hiring process, employers are expected to describe the essential functions for the job and then ask the applicants if they can perform them. If an otherwise qualified person needs an accommodation, it is that person’s responsibility to request it and the employer’s responsibility to decides whether it is reasonable. This Act is administered by the EEOC. The ADA has had a major impact on job analysis and job descriptions.

This federal law prohibits employment discrimination by public and private employers in all personnel decisions because of a mental or physical disability. The individual’s impairment must meet the definition of a disability. An individual with a disability is a person who: 1) Has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities; 2) has a record of such an impairment; or 3) is regarded as having such an impairment.

The employer is required to make a reasonable workplace accommodation that does not constitute an undue hardship for the employer. A reasonable workplace accommodation allows the individual with the disability to perform at the same level of effectiveness and efficiency as any qualified non-disabled employee.

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METHODS OF ANALYZING JOBS

  1. Interview – Job holders discuss their positions with a job analyst who then prepares a draft description for the agreement and approval of the job holder and that person’s supervisor.

  2. Observation – The job analyst watches the individual performing the job and takes notes describing the duties performed. The method is most appropriate for lower-level, repetitive cycle duties.

  3. Questionnaires and Worksheets – The most frequently used method of collecting job analysis information. These can be ambiguous and difficult for a typical employee to complete. Employees may be unwilling or unable to provide accurate responses.

(The Position Analysis Questionnaire was developed by Purdue University researchers. To complete the questionnaire, the job analyst must rank 194 items in terms of the extent to which they are used by the job holder in performing the requirements of the job. The items are arranged in six categories: information input, mental processes, and work output, relationships with others, job context, and other job characteristics. The ratings can be used to compare jobs in terms of their demands for decision making, skills use, and physical activity, operating equipment and processing informal information.)

  1. Secondary Data – The use of survey data on similar jobs or benchmarked positions at comparable institutions.

The Dictionary of Occupational Titles offers 20,000+ standardized description, analysis and classification of jobs. This approach allows each facet of a job to be examined and rated, and for those ratings to be used in making comparisons of the same or similar jobs in different organizations, or of different jobs in a single organization, as well as preparing a job description. This is no longer being published but can be found in a newer version on the Internet in the Department of Labor’s Occupational Information Network or O*NET.

USES OF JOB ANALYSIS

  1. Production of job descriptions and job specifications for use in recruitment and selection

  2. Definition of job responsibilities and work criteria for use in individual performance planning and reviews

  3. Organization and management of training and development programs to meet performance related skills and knowledge needs

  4. Assessment of organizational and individual needs, abilities and potential for use in human resources planning

  5. Provision of factual data as a basis for job evaluation and remuneration management

  6. Analysis of work and structural relationships for use in job design and organizational reviews

  7. Health and safety planning – identifies hazardous jobs

  8. Employment relations – Job descriptions and job specifications can reduce conflict over job content decisions.

APPROACHES TO JOB ANALYSIS

  1. Task inventoriesa job-oriented approach which looks at how work actually is performed. The inventory consists of a list of the different tasks making up the job and corresponding ratings of each task, carried out by the person doing the job. Each task may be further subdivided into sub categories. Each task is described using action words and direct objects.

  2. Functional job analysisa task oriented approach and is the most common non- questionnaire approach.

  3. Critical incident techniquea worker- oriented approach which produces a set of KSA’s. Basically a critical incident is an example of job success or failure. The supervisor supplies lists of actions which typify a good or bad employee.

  4. Position analysis questionnaire – a worker-oriented technique used to analyze and describe jobs in quantitative terms.

CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE JOB DESCRIPTIONS

  1. Simple – Simple language and clear statements are more likely to be understood by those who are to use the description.

  2. Not overstated – do not include minor tasks or use of inflated wording.

  3. Not be confused with position specifications

  4. Produced jointly and agreed upon by analyst, supervisor, and job holder

CONTENT OF JOB DESCRIPTIONS

  1. Job identificationthe title should describe the job role and indicate its level in the organization.

  2. Purpose of the job – A single sentence is usually sufficient to describe why the job exists and is an essential introduction to any job description.

  3. Reporting relationships – designates the position’s location in the organization.

  4. Authorities – The job description may set out the job holder’s authorities to act in areas such as the approval of expenditure, or the recruitment or dismissal of staff.

  5. Duties and tasks – Outline of major areas of responsibility and tasks. Also who does the job holder report to? Which positions report directly to the job holder? What other staff does the job holder have management responsibility for? Are there any significant functional relationships?

  6. Working conditions and other significant information -Significant features of the job such as heat, cold, night work etc.

COMPETENCIES OR COMPONENTS OF A JOB SPECFICATION

  1. Position identificationprovides basic information including the job title, classification, and the administrative unit and subunit in which it is placed.

  2. Broad purpose – generally stated in one or two sentences, which defines the broad purpose to be served by having this position, and gives an overview of what the job does and what is expected to be achieved.

  3. Reporting/working relationships – indicates the position to which this one reports, and positions reporting to the one being described. Significant working relationships within the organization are also identified here.

  4. Key outcomes and associated activities – is used to identify expected outcomes, as well as the means for achieving them.

WRITING JOB SPECIFICATIONS

  1. Fill in the position criteria form

    1. Human Resources posts and advertises job openings based on information supervisors provide

    2. Define the job including

      1. Job title

      2. Key responsibilities

      3. Knowledge and experience factors

      4. Intellectual factors

      5. Motivational factors

      6. Personality factors

  2. Prioritize the desired skills and experience

    1. They may be desired, preferred, or helpful. (differentiate between “musts” and “wants”)

  3. Job specs only on jobs tasks and responsibilities

    1. Avoid anything that is arbitrary, artificial, or unnecessary

    2. Standards unrelated to job performance may illegally discriminate against candidates because of their sex, age, race, religion or disability

    3. Extraneous qualifications could expose you and your employer to lawsuits

    4. They could discourage the best-qualified applicants

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UNIFORM GUIDELINES ON EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES OF 1978

In 1978, the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (UGESP) were issued. The guidelines are intended to establish a uniform basis of selection procedure criteria in the Federal sector. This guide imposes employers with the criteria by which the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the Office of Personnel Management, and the Departments of Justice and Labor would evaluate hiring practices to ensure adherence to merit principles.

The guidelines require employers to demonstrate selection procedures are valid in predicting and measuring performance in a particular job. Any selection procedure that has an adverse impact on any group will be considered discriminatory. Elements used in a selection process must be job-related, requiring criteria used to determine the candidates referred and selected be related to the job to be filled. The Guidelines provide employers with detailed information of recordkeeping requirements on disparate impact. (This is referred to as adverse impact in the Guidelines.)

GRIGGS V. DUKE POWER COMPANY

One of the first important court cases to address the interpretation of Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act was Griggs v. Duke Power Company. The driving force for this case was the requirement, by Duke Power, that laborers transferring to other departments have a high school diploma. This selection requirement failed under scrutiny since there were non-minorities who performed satisfactorily and achieved promotions though they did not have diplomas. In this case, the court emphasized that a selection device should measure the person for the job, not the person in the abstract. The tests did not have a demonstrated predictive affect on job performance.

The Supreme Court opinion in the 1971 landmark case of Griggs v. Duke Power Company reflected acceptance of the fundamental change in the definition of discrimination. This re-definition of discrimination was classified under the term “adverse impact” in the 1978 Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures, an update and expansion of the original EEOC Guidelines that was jointly adopted by the EEOC, the federal Civil Service Commission, the Department of Labor, and the Department of Justice. More recently, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1991, which was intended to reverse several Supreme Court rulings of the late 1980’s. This Act defined the statistically-defined adverse impact definition of discrimination.

J. R. Hackman and G. R. Oldham’s job characteristics model is an influential model of job design that explains in detail how managers can make jobs more interesting and motivating. Every job have five characteristics that determine how motivating the job is. These characteristics determine how employees react to their work and lead to outcomes such as high performance and satisfaction and low absenteeism and turnover.

Skill Variety

Task Identify

Task Significance

Autonomy

Feedback

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Preparation for Staffing and Recruiting

TEMINOLOGY

Affirmative action – is a process in which employer identifies underutilization of protected groups, determine availability in the relevant labor market, and set hiring goals.

Disparate impact – using selection standards or decision rules that appear to be neutral, but have an adverse effect on members of protected groups. Unintentional discrimination.

Disparate treatment – using selection standards or decision rules that explicitly treat protected group members differently than other applicants or employees. Intentional discrimination.

4/5ths Rule (Also known as the 80% Rule) – stating that a prima facie case of disparate treatment discrimination is established when the selection rate for protected groups is less than 80% of the selection rate for the highest group.

Prima Facie – proof legally sufficient to establish a case

Diversity – differences among people in regard to race, ethnicity, age, gender, culture, and other factors; also the principle that organizations respect and appreciate such differences. Diversity includes a mix of productive, motivated, and committed workers.

Job Posting – publicizing a notice of job-openings in the organization

Recruiting – the process of generating a sufficiently large group of qualified applicants in order to select the best-qualified individuals for the available job

Reliability – the stability, consistency, and dependability of the results of a selection measure.

Validity – the degree to which a test actually measures the quality it is designed to measure.

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