Autonomy – the extent to which employees are free to schedule their own activities, decide work procedures, and select necessary equipment
Class– a group of jobs with similar duties and responsibilities
Class series – vertical group of two or more classes on basis of type of work and difficulty
Compressed work schedule – a job design strategy that allows the employee flexibility in the number of days worked during a workweek
Cross-training – training employees in different tasks within the organization. This creates more flexibility in staffing.
Extrinsic rewards – payoffs granted to individuals by others (money, praise, recognition)
Flextime – a design strategy that allows an individual some flexibility in the hour to work
Intrinsic rewards – internal payoffs ( sense of accomplishment)
Job– can be several positions that are identical with respect to duties and responsibilities
Job family – a grouping of jobs with similar characteristics
Job design – the process of defining tasks and the work arrangements to accomplish them. Includes job content, identifying work methods, and relating the job others within the organization. Job design is influenced by employee factors, resource availability, technology, legislation and regulations, and managerial philosophy.
Job enlargement – a job design strategy that focuses on increasing the number and variety of an employee’s tasks
Job enrichment – a job design strategy that focuses on the needs of the individual employee by allowing greater responsibility for the work. Has a high level of intrinsic rewards and a low degree of task specialization
Job rotation – a job design strategy that shifts employees from one job to another in the organization
Job sharing – a design strategy that allows more than one employee to share one position
Job simplification – has a low intrinsic reward and a high degree of task specialization
Job specialization (division of labor) originated in the Industrial Revolution – a system of job design where an employee does only one limited part of the organization’s total work
Knowledge – a body of information applied directly to the performance of a function
Occupational group – a grouping of classes based on the general function or character of duties
Performance feedback – provides employees with information about how well they are doing
Position – a collection of duties and responsibilities carried out by one person
Quality circles – small groups of employees who meet regularly to identify work problems and recommend solutions
Realistic job preview – informs job candidates of the “organization realities of a job so they can more accurately evaluate their own job expectations.
Routine- a limited number of activities repeated over and over
Skill Variety – the extent to which a job demands the performance of a wide range of activities. The more variety allows more creativity and requires more education, training, and experience.
Task – a single identifiable job activity
Task identity – extent to which a job allows employees to perform an entire piece of work
Task significance – is the impact of the job on the lives and work of others
Telecommuting – a job design strategy that allows employees to establish offices and work primarily out of their homes
STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING JOB DESIGN
Create natural work units
Establish client relationships
Expand jobs vertically
Open feedback channels
TYPES OF JOBS THAT CAN BENEFIT FROM SPECIALIZATION
Those that are time consuming and have a higher labor content
Those that are frequently recurring and have a large demand
Those that present quality problems due to rejects or reworks
Those with potential to bottleneck the system limiting output
Those that are unsafe, unpleasant, or fatiguing
Those with extremely low or extremely high wages (including overtime)
Task significance (job enlargement can increase task significance)
Autonomy (use job enrichment to increase)
SOURCES OF MOTIVATION (NON-MONETARY)
(Money is a short-term motivator)
TYPES OF DEPARTMENTALIZATION IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT
Most governments use a combination of departmentalization. How jobs are organized into work groups helps to develop appropriate pay and classification systems.
Functional – grouping of activities based on type of work
Geographic – grouping activities based on the location of work
Customer – grouping activities based on user of a service
Project – grouping diverse activities across functional lines to carry out complex tasks or missions
APPLICATIONS TO LOCAL GOVERNMENT
Most jobs in state and local government are knowledge, skills, and abilities rather than a sequence of tasks or duties. Job redesign is restricted by the classification system of position management which begins with a request for a study and ends with the approval or disapproval at higher levels.
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