Human Resource Management Notes

Techniques of Coordination

By the following techniques the manager can achieve coordination:

1. Supervisor

He should ensure that his subordinates and their work are related with other individuals and groups.

2. Organization

Good organization itself is a good device to accomplish coordination. Good organization means proper grouping of activities, clearly defined jobs and duties, clear-cut delegation of authority, distinct correlation between different divisions, and a well directed system of responsibilities.

3. Written Communication

Written Communication is very useful and effective to achieve coordination. Written Communication includes letter, memos, reports, bulletins, policies, procedures, programs, and other plans.

4. Group meetings

Group meetings are conscious efforts to accomplish a high quality of coordination. Its purpose is to facilitating unification and relating the efforts of various groups and departments.

5. Liaison Officer

Like supervisor, liaison officer is a good medium for achieving coordination. A liaison officer is appointed to unify departmental and group activities. He keeps in touch with all departments and convey necessary information to them.

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Coordination and Principles of Coordination

Coordination is ever present at every level of management, and pervades all managerial functions. It has been defined as an orderly synchronization or unification of individual and group efforts. It facilitates harmonization of individual and group goals. The bigger the organization and the resulted complexity, the more essential becomes the coordination. Coordination is reconciling differences in approach, interpretation of plans, timing, efforts, and interests of individuals, subordinates, compeers, and superiors.

Principles of Coordination

Mary Parker Follett has great contribution in the development of coordination principles. These principles are

1. Principle of Direct Contact

Direct contact plays a vital role in the accomplishment of coordination. Direct contact may be top down, bottom-up and horizontal. If facilitates face-to-face communication, understanding, exchange of ideas, and harmonized interpretation of plans, policies and procedures.

2. Principle of Achieving Coordination at Early stages

Coordination is necessary to achieve at an early stage of planning. Unification of activities becomes difficult after plans are put to operation.

3. Principle of Reciprocity of all Factors

According to this principle all factors, affairs, matters, or problems are interrelated in a given situation. These factors are so much interwoven and correlated that they cannot be viewed and analyzed separately or they will mislead the manager.

4. Horizontal Coordination is more important than vertical

This principle states that vertical coordination is not so much difficult because of incessant, regular, and direct contact between the boss and his subordinates. The real test of coordination is at horizontal level. Horizontal coordination is necessary to interchange information, interpret plans, implement schedules, accommodate the requirements of each other, and smooth the working of the company as a whole. All the heads and personnel of different departments should maintain links between themselves to exchange information, know changed situations and conditions, increase understanding, and make it sure that plans are going ahead as per schedule.

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Different Views on Motivation (Basic Motives of People)

Why people behave the way they do is discussed below from different viewpoints.

1. Sociological View

The behavior of people is molded by the social environment. Society determines the values and norms of the behavior of its people. The society dislikes, rejects, or condemns those who do not follow these values and norms.

2. Biological View

The behavior of people depends upon their physical and biological needs. Chemical or nutrient balance affect human behavior. According to this view, people are what they eat.

3. Psychoanalytic View

Sigmund Freud suggested that our motives are determined by our subconscious. According to some other psychologists, people are what they think. The personality build-up is dependent upon their level of thinking.

4. Behaviorist View

This is modern view on motivation. Behaviorists are not concerned with the ‘whys’ of the behavior. The emphasis is on what’s happening. J.B Watson, a behavioral scientist, declares that the human behavior is the result of input through five senses.

In short, management should understand motivation ton decide the action that should be taken. Having the knowledge of the subordinates motivation will facilitate the manager’s right action.

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Project Human Resource Management

At the planning stage, project management considers how to staff the project. There is a lot of planning involved. It encompasses many other knowledge areas: cost and procurement.

There are 3 processes in Project HR Management

  • Organizational planning

  • Staff acquisition planning phase

  • Team development executing phase

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Staff acquisition (13th of 21 planning phase process)

It involves getting the people resources needed assigned to and working on the project. The project manager doesn’t not always have direct control over these resources because many of them will be assigned to the project team by other managers.


Tools and Techniques


  • Staff management plan

  • Staffing-pool description

  • Recruitment practices

  • Negotiations

  • Pre-assignment

  • Procurement

  • Project staff assignments

  • Project team directory


  • Staff management plan – describe when and how HR will join and leave the project team. Resource histograms that show resource requirements, their usage, and availability along a timeline are often incorporated into the staff management plan. It is part of the project plan. It is the main Organizational planning output.

  • Staffing-pool description – includes the characteristics of potential staff, their experience, interests, characteristics, and availability.

  • Recruitment practices – include various organizational policies, guidelines, and procedures governing staff assignment. These are a constraint on staffing.

Tools and techniques

  • Negotiations – ensure that there are appropriate resources at the required time. It is the role of project manager negotiate with functional managers or others (e.g. other project managers)

  • Pre-assignment – in some cases, staff were promised the assignment before the project started. It is an internal practice in many organizations.

  • Procurement – recruiting people outside the organization. This technique entails hiring consultants and contractors.


  • Project staff assignments – indicate who will work on the project full-time, part-time, or variably.

  • Project team directory – lists all project team members and key stakeholders. It can be a simple, informal list or very detailed.

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Organizational planning (12th of 21 planning phase process)

It involves identifying, documenting, and assigning project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships. The assignment can be internal or they may come from outside. Internal groups are usually composed of specific functional departments, such as IT, engineering, marketing, or account. HR is an important area because people are the project’s most valuable resource.


Tools and Techniques


  • Project interfaces

  • Staffing requirements

  • Constraints:

  • Templates

  • HR practices

  • Organizational theory

  • Stakeholder analysis

  • Role and responsibility assignments

  • Staffing management plan

  • Organization chart

  • Supporting details


    • Project interfaces: organizational interfaces – formal and information report relationships among different organizational units; Technical interfaces: formal and informal reporting relationships among technical disciplines; formal and information reporting relationship among different individual working on the project

    • Staffing requirements: define skills required of individuals or groups and the desired time frame within which they’ll be needed.

    • Constraints: factors such as organizational structure, collective bargaining agreements with unions or other employee group, preferences of the project team, expected staff assignments.

Tools and techniques

  • Templates – help to define roles and responsibilities or reporting relationships

  • HR practices – help to plan the structure of project team

  • Organizational theory – help to structure the organization (see other descriptions)

  • Stakeholder analysis – help to ensure stakeholders’ needs and expectations are met.


  • Role and responsibility assignments: assignment of roles and responsibilities

  • Staffing management plan: describe when and how HR will join and leave the project team. Resource histograms that show resource requirements, their usage, and availability along a timeline are often incorporated into the staff management plan. It is part of the project plan.

  • Organization chart: displays the reporting relationships in a graphic format.

  • Supporting details: includes organizational impact, job descriptions, training needs.

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Team development (3rd of 7 executing phase process)

The project manager must enhance the team to function as a coordinated unit. This is critical on uncertain projects, such as risky research and development (R&D) project. It is necessary to develop each person in both managerial and technical areas.


Tools and Techniques


  • Project staff

  • Project plan

  • Staffing management plan

  • Performance reports

  • External feedback.

  • Team-building activities

  • General management skills

  • Reward & recognition system

  • Collocation

  • Training

  • Performance improvements

  • Input for performance appraisals


  • Project staff – It is an output of Staff Acquisition process, where it is project staff assigned. The key is that particular skill sets for individuals and the team are available to support the project.

  • Project plan – incorporates the integrated documents that provide the baseline for controlling changes.

  • Staffing management plan – It is the main Organizational planning output. It describes when and how HR will join and leave the project team. Resource histograms that show resource requirements, their usage, and availability along a timeline are often incorporated into the staff management plan. It is part of the project plan.

  • Performance reports – alert the project team to issues that can cause problems in the future. Status reports describe the project’s current standings. Progress reports describe the team’s accomplishments.

  • External feedback – criticism from outside the project helps the project team make periodic measures of performance.

Tools and techniques

  • Team-building activities – any actions that improve team performance.

  • General management skills – include leadership, communication, negotiation skills, problem solving, and influencing the organization.

  • Reward and recognition system – motivates people through intrinsic factors like responsibility, promotions, and achievement, as well as extrinsic factors like pay raise, and working conditions. If rewards are given in a timely and public manner, they promote desired behavior.

  • Collocation – Despite the fact that various communications technologies can bring people together easily, it is still generally a good idea to places team members in the same physical location. It can help to develop the team.

  • Training – it help to enhance team skills, knowledge, and capabilities. Training costs need to be considered in developing the project.


  • Performance improvements – includes anything that improves individual skills, enhances the ability of the team to function as a team, or identifies more efficient methods of working.

  • Input for performance appraisals – comprises evaluations of each staff member’s contribution to the project. Project manager can use periodic evaluations and/or annual performance reviews according to the organization’s HR policy.

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Rise in Attrition:Is Work Culture Responsible?

Where causes of increased attrition in organisations are concerned, issues like remuneration or work atmosphere are slowly being replaced by external factors as the cause for increased attrition as the economy transforms itself into a services-oriented one. What are these? What should a manager do to overcome these? To understand such issues, read the following article.

A highly qualified management graduate from one of India’s reputed institutes was always overlooked during promotions at a leading Engineering firm. He rarely accompanied his colleagues on their weekend recreation activities.
A gifted copywriter bid goodbye to a satisfying advertising job because she was treated like a pariah. She always refused offers to accompany her colleagues for movies and dinners.

A talented market researcher, who had a bright career ahead of him, left a very good job with a leading firm because he could not blend with the other employees. He was from a small town and the others were socialites.

Welcome to the actual world where work culture has got more to do with what happens outside the workspace and less within.

Organisations are made or broken depending on what they consider priorities. While profitability fuelled ambitions in the fifties, quality determined fate in the seventies, the customer was king in the eighties and employees are now acknowledged as an organisation’s true assets.

Today one can see a change in the mindset of organisations with respect to employee relationship management with organisations across the world conducting employee satisfaction surveys regularly. Among other parameters of evaluation, work culture has begun to play a major role in determining employee satisfaction.

Surprisingly, today, compensation and rewards are no longer the bones of contention. Rather issues such as ‘Work culture’ determine the level of comfort an employee experiences and this in turn determines the strength of loyalty and commitment. It influences the decision of the employee while recommending the company to a prospect. In simple terms it determines whether working in that organisation is a pleasure or a pain.

Definitions & manifestations – the whats and how’s of work culture
A host of terms could be used to describe work culture – camaraderie, teamwork, cooperation, coordination and so on. All these definitions are not only right but also underline the contemporary definition of work culture.

The eagerness with which team members work with each other; the smoothness with which colleagues adapt to each other’s work styles; the ease with which contentious issues are prevented or addressed are all instances of work culture in practice.
While what ‘work culture’ embodies and how it is defined is to a large extent subject to individual assessment, what can be unanimously accepted is that ‘Work culture’ is acknowledged as a parameter with far-reaching effects on employee morale and company image.

‘Work culture’ – Hygiene factor or Motivation factor?
At this juncture, it would really be worth considering where ‘Work culture’ figures in Fredrick Herzberg’s Hygiene and Motivation Factor theory. Hygiene factors are those whose absence lead to dissatisfaction and results in lack of motivation among employees. Herzberg lists company policies, administration, working conditions, interpersonal relations, salary and security as hygiene factors. It is easy to see that presence of hygiene factors only ensures that employees are not dissatisfied. Presence of hygiene factors does not necessarily ensure delight or motivation among employees. Common motivation factors on the other hand are those whose presence result in motivated employees. Motivation factors are achievement, recognition, additional responsibility and growth. Presence of motivation factors in the absence of hygiene factors could yet result in dissatisfaction.

From what we understand about ‘work culture’, it is clearly a hygiene factor, a factor, which to reiterate is fundamental in (hygiene) that it determines the level of satisfaction among employees, a factor, which if is not monitored and managed can lead to disastrous consequences with regard to employee morale and loyalty.

Metamorphosis of workspaces
The last few decades have been witness to changes in organisational structure and group dynamics. Typical hierarchical structures were modified and the emergence of ‘flat’ organisations became the norm. Top management became more approachable and accessible to the lower rungs of the pecking order. Management and leadership discarded the disciplinarian ‘Captain William Bligh of HMS Bounty’ approach and adopted a milder ‘Captain Ricky Ponting’ approach. ‘Sirs’ and ‘Ma’ams’ gave way to first-name addresses. The way we work today would surely give the aristocratic stiff- upper- lip British a shock.

Suddenly teamwork is no longer an eight-letter word relegated to the depths of HR textbooks, it has witnessed a paradigm shift in the way group dynamics was being evaluated and measured. The focus has gradually shifted from being result oriented to effort oriented and employee interaction has risen in precedence.

This emphasis on teamwork has had an impact on various functions of the company such as recruitment and employee performance evaluation.

A worker today is evaluated more in terms of whether he ‘belongs’ as against whether he ‘delivers’…

Work environment dynamics more than ever before are being set at the cigarette shop across the street and not at the work desk… Team ‘spirit’ is being measured more in terms of the participation at the local pub and less in terms of a worker’s eagerness to get done with the job and go home early…

A quick survey among professionals in Mumbai, Bangalore and Delhi has shown that ‘hanging out’ and ‘chilling out’ is no longer college speak. These are popular means of getting along well with one’s colleagues and accepted means of advancing one’s career in a firm.
This phenomenon is increasingly being observed in India’s fastest growing sector – the Service Industry. Call centres, Advertising agencies, Media houses, Consultancies, Software companies are only a few of the plethora of companies that have been afflicted with the “corporate peer pressure”. Even in traditional industries such as Manufacturing, Sales and Marketing the management cadre is highly prone to this unfortunate syndrome.

Dictums for the Future
Without doubt, today it is very clear that office culture is increasingly being defined and evaluated outside the office. Teamwork and teamwork-spirit are losing their significance with respect to job duties and responsibilities alone. What are the questions facing corporates now?

  • Can they afford to lose qualified employees who don’t ‘belong’ to the culture of their colleagues?
  • Should corporates alienate capable and skilled colleagues who are incapable of socialising?

There is a need to study this phenomenon to ascertain its gravity. There is a need to take a fresh look at the new group dynamics that have entered the work place. What then, should the roles of new managers be?

Managers today would have to ensure that the college student mentality stays where it belongs and doesn’t enter the workplace. While it is always welcome to make the office a refreshing, interesting and lively place to be in, managers have to set the limits of informality and be able to differentiate between and redefine key result areas and productivity parameters.

Managers need to understand that there will still be some individuals who will continue working despite this issue. What needs to be analysed is to what extent is this loyalty dictated by helplessness and lack of other options and to what extent does job satisfaction rule the decision to stay. While it is clear how the former is detrimental to the organisation’s interest, managers need to pause and give a thought about how much longer a star employee will put up with the stress to “belong”.

The last word
The difficulty is of course understandable in getting along with introverts and recluses. But it would be criminal to force a colleague to ‘blend in’ in the name of being a ‘sport’. It is acknowledged that given the demands of the workplace and the stress that comes along with them, one would like to relax and unwind at the end of the day. But it would be unfair to assume that every employee would prefer to unwind in the same collective way. It is accepted that colleagues would like to socialise. But it would be unjust to compel someone to make an attempt to ‘belong’.

Many a hand would go up, many a voice would be raised in protest to the above statements. Many readers would disagree that they compelled an unwilling elitist colleague. Probably they are right. But the fact remains that once a colleague declines, for the rest of his stay in the office, the behaviour of others should not always be driven by his decision.

It is here that tomorrow’s managers have to step in and ensure that efficient employees are not being isolated and condemned by their teammates. Managers have to see to it that the ‘day after’ (a party or a movie), a non-participating employee is still treated as before – and that is on the basis of his performance in office and not outside it.

Finally, there is an old adage that says ‘all work and no play makes Jack a dull boy’. But there are lot of skilled Jacks who would like to play alone. There are many efficient Jacks out there who would like to play with their families. There are many more sincere Jacks who have a life beyond the place of their livelihood. These Jacks need to be respected and allowed to be. These Jacks need to be respected and accepted as what they are – thorough professionals.

In the name of group dynamics, corporates should not end up compromising on productivity attributable to the attrition of a thorough professional who simply couldn’t fit in. Or else corporates should institutionalise formalised fora for interaction and exchange of thoughts and bonding.

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Function Of Human Resource Management

  • Procurement

  • Training

  • Compensation

  • Maintenance

  • Separation

HRP- Stay Plans – Goals

Turn over Rate


Compensation = Job evaluation integration

Maintenance = Both mentally and physically Human Resource should keep save.


Attracts the candidates


  1. Advertisement

  2. HR firms

  3. Notices

  4. Talent pool (casual applicants)

  5. Referrals

  6. Nepotism

  7. Industry

  8. Educational Institution

  9. Directories

  10. Internet


It involves attracting candidates to fill the position in the organizational structure. Before recruiting position requirements must be clearly identified . This makes it easier to select a suitable candidate . Public and private sector has many similarities in recruitment , but there are some differences also . Such as :

  • In public sector , government demands that manager adhere to special hiring guidelines

  • In public sector they have to take competitive tests like CSS examinations

  • In some private organizations they also take written and oral test.

The selection process in private ( government ) sector is not objective and rational .So to overcome this factor and to improve the efficiency of government a better selection process is required.

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Planning the Appraisal Discussion

The guidelines below are provided to help supervisors develop their own approach and style.

Getting Prepared

  • Identify the main points of the review and discussion. What must be said and what conclusions must be reached?

  • Be aware of the staff member’s past experience, education, work history, and other related information. Review the staff member’s strengths and weaknesses, and any circumstances that may have contributed to the performance.

  • Review notes from the last appraisal discussion, particularly with respect to the Future Plans and Development section.

  • Review the job description and performance standards, noting any changes which should be made, and establish preliminary performance standards for the new rating period.

  • What is the difference between what was expected and what has occurred?

  • What facts, records, and events are available to support the evaluation?

Setting the Stage

  • Prepare notes to help guide the discussion.

  • Schedule an appointment with the staff member in advance.

  • Suggest the staff member prepare a list of accomplishments, strengths and weaknesses.

  • Arrange for a suitable meeting place where it is quiet, relaxed, and private.

  • Review all materials and information gathered.

  • Bring a “draft” not a final copy of the Performance Appraisal.

Conducting the Appraisal Session

Conducting the discussion is the critical step. It can have an important bearing on future relationships and will profoundly influence a supervisor’s ability to motivate future performance. The following are guidelines provided to help supervisors develop their own style and methods.

Setting the Tone of the Discussion

Clearly state the purpose of the meeting and explain the ground rules and the process. Tell staff member what can come out of meeting, including future assignments, clear communication, and increased duties. Minimize the negative connotations of “evaluation,” “rating,” and “records of evidence.”

  • Help the staff member feel at ease and receptive.

Communicating Information

  • Explain and discuss the Performance Appraisal form

  • Avoid making the rating form and specific ratings the principal issue of the discussion

  • Avoid criticism of personality or personal traits

  • Use hypothetical questions to help staff member search out underlying problems and solutions

  • Don’t cross-examine; allow staff member to speak (voicing opinions and feelings; making plans for self-improvement; discussing job-related problems)

  • List disagreements, don’t gloss over them; use listening skills to separate facts from opinions and to shift from details to major points or problems

  • Explain ratings proposed for each of the staff member’s key responsibilities; cite specific examples

  • Come prepared with clear, understandable (written) statements which express expectations concerning future changes in performance; agree on process to monitor areas requiring change with on-going and specific target-dated reviews (Areas for Improvement section)

  • Be prepared to make development commitments which are appropriate and feasible to support necessary changes in behavior; discuss plans for staff member’s self-development and how these relate to performance expectations (Future Plans and Development Activities section)

  • As appropriate, discuss advancement opportunities and how the staff member can achieve career goals; include in this discussion the specific knowledge, skills, and experience the staff member must acquire in order to advance; agree on specific methods for acquiring them (Future Plans and Development Activities section)

  • To establish a new position description for the next evaluation period, arrive at mutually agreeable modifications, additions or deletions in the staff member’s responsibilities and related objectives.

Closing the Appraisal Discussion

  • It is important to conclude the discussion on a positive note.

  • Discuss plans to build on strengths and correct weaknesses to enhance future performance

  • Conclude with a summary of the main points of the discussion

  • Inform the staff member of the option to respond to the appraisal in the “Employee Comments and Recommendations” section

  • Have staff member sign the form if he/she does not wish to add any comments; OR set a mutually agreeable date for signing the final form, incorporating any changes, and including any comments made by the staff member.

Supervisor’s Self Evaluation

After the interview process has been completed, consider the following:

  • Did things go well/poorly? Why?

  • What topics were handled successfully/unsuccessfully?

  • What subjects aroused the staff member’s interest and involvement?

  • Were all important points thoroughly discussed?

  • What remains as unfinished business?

  • What points should be raised at the next meeting?

  • What performance should be monitored in the future?

  • What…objectives should be set? …skills should be developed?

  • Is the staff member a possible candidate for promotion?

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