The procedure for determining duties and skill requirements of a Job and kind of person who should be hired for it.
While manpower inventory is concerned with telling ‘what employees can do’, Job Analysis assesses ‘what employees are doing.’
From job analysis, specific details of what is being done and skills utilised in job, is obtained. It enables managers to understand jobs and job structure to improve to work flow or develop techniques to improve productivity. It also involves job design or redesign, co-ordinating demands on available time, individual psychological needs, technical procedures and desired performances.
Before we proceed to discuss job analysis in detail, certain terms relating to job need to understand. These terms are:-
Job:- A job may be defined as a “collection of tasks, duties and responsibilities which as a whole, is regarded as a regular assignment to individual employees,” and which is different from other assignments. In other words, when the total work to be done is divided and grouped into package we call it a “job.”
It is a written record of duties responsibilities and requirements of a particular job. It is concerned with the job itself & not with the work. It is a statement describing the job in such terms as its title, location, duties, working conditions & hazards. In other words, ‘what is to be done’, and ‘how it is to be done’ and ‘why’. It is a standard of function which defines appropriate & authorised contents of a job.
Job Specification:- It is a standard of personnel and designates the qualities required for an acceptable performance. It is a written record of requirements sought in an individual worker for a given job.
Job Design:- It is the division of total task to be performed into the manageable and efficient units-position department and divisions, and to provide for their proper intergration.
After a job has been defined, it is analysed i.e., each task is described in detail. It is a procedure and a tool for determining specified tasks, operations and requirements of each job.
“It is the process of getting information about jobs: specially what the worker does; how he gets it done; why he does it’ skill, education and training required; relationship to other jobs; physical demands, environmental conditions.”
In other words, it refers to the anatomy of job.
It is a complete study of job, embodying every known and determinable factor, including duties and responsibilities involved in its performance, conditions under which performance is carried on, nature, nature of task, qualities required in worker and such conditions of employment as pay, hour, opportunities and privileges. It also emphasises relation of one job to other in the organisation.