Distinguish between training and development. Explain various techniques of development of managers.

Training is a process of learning a sequence of programmed behavior. It is application of knowledge. It gives people an awareness of the rules and procedures to guide their behavior. It attempts to improve their performance on the currents job or prepare them for an intended job.

Development is a related process. It covers not only those activities, which improve job performance, but also those which bring about growth of the personality; help individuals in the progress towards maturity and actualization of their potential capacities so that they become not only good employees but better men and woman. In organisational terms, it is intended to equip persons to earn promotion and hold greater responsibility. Training a person for higher and bigger job is development. And this may well include not only imparting specific skills and knowledge but also inculcating certain personality and mental attitudes.

Training is short term process utilizing a systematic and organised procedure by which non managerial personal learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. Development is a long term educational process utilizing a systematic and organised procedure by which managerial personnel learn conceptual and theoretical knowledge for general purpose.

Management development is any attempt to improve managerial performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitude or increasing skills. The general management development consists of (1) assessing the company’s strategic needs (for instance, to full future executive openings or to boost competitiveness).

(2) Developing managers for future responsibilities.

There is more emphasis on choosing management development methods that are more organisationally relevant and effective that they have been in the past. Various techniques of management development include:-

  1. Management on-the-job training.

  2. Off the job training.

Managerial on-the-job training methods include job-rotation, coaching/understudy approach and action learning.

Job rotation means moving management trainees from department to broaden their understanding of all part of the business and to test their abilities. A manager may spend several months in each department. The person may just bean observer in each department but more commonly gets fully involved in its operations.

Coaching/understudy approach: Here the person workers directly with the senior manager or with the person he or she is to replace; the latter is responsible for the executive of certain responsibilities, giving the trainee a chance to learn the job.

Action learning programmers give managers and others released time to work full time on projects, analysis and solving problems in departments other than their own trainees meet periodically in four or five person project groups to discuss their findings. Several trainees may work together as a project group or compare notes and discuss each other’s projects.

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