Major Contribution to Management

Scientific management

Frederick W. Taylor, Shop Management 1903, Principles of Scientific Management 1911, Testimony before the special House Committee 1912.

Acknowledged as the father of scientific management. His primary concern was to increase productivity through greater efficiency in production and increased pay for workers, through the application of the scientific method. His principles emphasized using science, creating group harmony and cooperation, achieving maximum output, and developing works.

Henry L. Gantt 1990

Called for scientific selection of workers and harmonious cooperation between labor and management. Developed the gantt. Stressed the need for training.

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth 1900.

Frank is known primarily for his time and motion studies. Lillian, and industrial psychologist, focused on the human aspects of work and the understanding of workers personalities and needs.

Modern Operational Management Theory

Herri Fayol, Administration Industrielle et Generale 1916

Referred to as the father of modern management theory Divided industrial activities into six groups : technical, commercial, financial, security, accounting and managerial. Recognized the need for teaching management. Formulated fourteen principles of management, such as authority and responsibility, unity of command, scalar chain, and esprit de corps.

Behavioral Sciences

Hugo Munsterberg 1912

Application of psychology to industry and management.

Walter Dill Scott 1911

Application of psychology to advertising, marketing, and personnel.

Max Weber (Translations 1946, 1947)

Theory of bureaucracy.

Vilfredo Pareto (books 1896-1917)

Referred to as the father of the social systems approach to organization and management.

Elton Mayo and F.J. Roethlisberger 1933

Famous studies at the Hawthorne plant of the western electric company. Influence of social attitudes and relationships of work groups on performance.

Taylor’s Principles

The fundamental principles that Taylor saw underlying the scientific approach to management are summarized in the Perspective below. You will notice that these basic precepts of Taylor’s are not far from the fundamental beliefs of the modern manager. It is true that some of the techniques Taylor and his colleagues and followers developed in order to put his philosophy and principles into practice had certain mechanistic aspects. To determine what a fair day’s work was and to help in finding the one best way of doing any given job, the careful study of time and motion was widely applied. Likewise, various pay plans based on.

Replacing rules of thumb with science (organized knowledge.

Obtaining harmony in group action, rather than discord.

Achieving cooperation of human beings, rather than chaotic individualism.

Working for maximum output, rather than restricted output.

Developing all workers to the fullest extent possible for their own and their company’s highest prosperity.

Output were used in an attempt to increase the surplus to make sure that workers who produced were paid according to their productivity, and to give workers an incentive for performance.

As they often were by many factory owners throughout the world, to increase labor productivity without providing ample reward, adequate training, or managerial help. But this was certainly not what Frederick Taylor had in mind.

Taylor emphasized the importance of careful advance planning by managers and the responsibility of manager to design work systems so that workers would be helped to do their best. But as he spoke of management, he never overlooked the fact that the relations between employers and men form without question the most important part of this art.