Conventional theory of firm assumes profit maximization is the sole objective of business firms. But recent researches on this issue reveal that the objectives the firms pursue are more than one. Some important objectives, other than profit maximization are:
(a) Maximization of the sales revenue
(b) Maximization of firm’s growth rate
(c) Maximization of Managers utility function
(d) Making satisfactory rate of Profit
(e) Long run Survival of the firm
(f) Entry-prevention and risk-avoidance
Profit Business Objectives:
Profit means different things to different people. To an accountant “Profit” means the excess of revenue over all paid out costs including both manufacturing and overhead expenses. For all practical purpose, profit or business income means profit in accounting sense plus non-allowable expenses.
Economist’s concept of profit is of “Pure Profit” called ‘economic profit’ or “Just profit”. Pure profit is a return over and above opportunity cost, i. e. the income that a businessman might expect from the second best alternatives use of his resources.
Sales Revenue Maximisation: The reason behind sales revenue maximisation objectives is the Dichotomy between ownership & management in large business corporations. This Dichotomy gives managers an opportunity to set their goal other than profits maximisation goal, which most-owner businessman pursue. Given the opportunity, managers choose to maximize their own utility function. The most plausible factor in manager’s utility functions is maximisation of the sales revenue.
The factors, which explain the pursuance of this goal by the managers are following:.
- First: Salary and others earnings of managers are more closely related to sales revenue than to profits
- Second: Banks and financial corporations look at sales revenue while financing the corporation.
- Third: Trend in sales revenue is a readily available indicator of the performance of the firm.
Maximisation of Firms Growth rate: Managers maximize firm’s balance growth rate subject to managerial & financial constrains balance growth rate defined as:
G = GD – GC
Where GD = Growth rate of demand of firm’s product & GC= growth rate of capital supply of capital to the firm.
In simple words, A firm growth rate is balanced when demand for its product & supply of capital to the firm increase at the same time.
Maximisation of Managerial Utility function: The manager seek to maximize their own utility function subject to the minimum level of profit. Managers utility function is express as:
U= f(S, M, ID)
Where S = additional expenditure of the staff
M= Managerial emoluments
ID = Discretionary Investments
The utility functions which manager seek to maximize include both quantifiable variables like salary and slack earnings; non- quantifiable variables such as prestige, power, status, Job security professional excellence etc.
Long run survival & market share: according to some economist, the primary goal of the firm is long run survival. Some other economists have suggested that attainment & retention of constant market share is an additional objective of the firm’s. the firm may seek to maximize their profit in the long run through it is not certain.
Entry-prevention and risk-avoidance, yet another alternative objectives of the firms suggested by some economists is to prevent entry-prevention can be:
Profit maximisation in the long run
Securing a constant market share
Avoidance of risk caused by the unpredictable behavior of the new firms
Micro economist has a vital role to play in running of any business. Micro economists are concern with all the operational problems, which arise with in the business organization and fall in with in the preview and control of the management. Some basic internal issues with which micro-economist are concerns:
Choice of business and nature of product i.e. what to produce
Choice of size of the firm i. e how much to produce
Choice of technology i.e. choosing the factor-combination
Choose of price i.e. how to price the commodity
How to promote sales
How to face price competition
How to decide on new investments
How to manage profit and capital
How to manage inventory i.e. stock to both finished & raw material
These problems may also figure in forward planning. Micro economist deals with these questions and like confronted by managers of the enterprises.