Perhaps the most useful set of categories is that of low, medium or high level models. In this case the level refers to the level of complexity – so a low level model would be a relatively simple representation of the phenomenon while a high level model of the same event would be much more complex and detailed and
include more variables.
- Black Box models
- Personal variable models
- Personal Variable/Post Purchase Satisfaction model
Black Box Models of Consumer Behaviour (Soloman, Bamossy & Askegaard, 1999)
- Black box models focus solely on inputs and outputs
- Do not consider internal variables.
- They suggest that a given stimulus will prompt a particular response, within this processing centre;memory, goals and expectations are considered.
Simple black box models are based on identifiable observable and measurable variables, however they are unable to predict or explain behaviour.
Nicosia Model (Dubois 2000)
The model is split into four key fields:
- The source of a message to the consumers attitude
- The search for and evaluation of alternatives
- The act of purchase
- Storage and the use of the purchased product.
The model attempted to demonstrate how the company influences the consumer through its promotional and advertising activities. However, criticisms have been raised about this model, include its descriptive content, its brevity, that it has never been fully tested and is now considered historical.