Affirmative action – is a process in which employer identifies underutilization of protected groups, determine availability in the relevant labor market, and set hiring goals.
Disparate impact – using selection standards or decision rules that appear to be neutral, but have an adverse effect on members of protected groups. Unintentional discrimination.
Disparate treatment – using selection standards or decision rules that explicitly treat protected group members differently than other applicants or employees. Intentional discrimination.
4/5ths Rule (Also known as the 80% Rule) – stating that a prima facie case of disparate treatment discrimination is established when the selection rate for protected groups is less than 80% of the selection rate for the highest group.
Prima Facie – proof legally sufficient to establish a case
Diversity – differences among people in regard to race, ethnicity, age, gender, culture, and other factors; also the principle that organizations respect and appreciate such differences. Diversity includes a mix of productive, motivated, and committed workers.
Job Posting – publicizing a notice of job-openings in the organization
Recruiting – the process of generating a sufficiently large group of qualified applicants in order to select the best-qualified individuals for the available job
Reliability – the stability, consistency, and dependability of the results of a selection measure.
Validity – the degree to which a test actually measures the quality it is designed to measure.