Orientation, Training, and Development

TERMINOLOGY

Career – a profession or occupation that an employee trains for and pursues as a normal life activity

Career growth – an employee’s progressive acceptance of new roles and responsibilities within the same organization

Departmental orientation – orientation that covers topics unique to the new employee’s department and job

Development programs – preparation of individuals to take on future responsibilities

Evaluation – measurements of an outcome against stated objectives

Gap analysis – identification of the gap between where employees’ skills are and where they should be

Job rotation – a job design strategy that shifts employees from one job to another in the organization

Mentoring – a method that uses a mentor (a person more senior in position or experience who coaches a junior person or protégé)

On-the-job training – any training an employee receives on the job while under direct supervision

Organizational commitment – an attitude of employees who identify with the organization’s values, beliefs, and traditions

Organizational orientation – orientation that covers matters relevant to all employees

Orientation – a program designed to welcome new employees and introduce them to their jobs

Skill obsolescence – the situation in which a skill is no longer needed

Training – a process by which people acquire knowledge and skills needed for performance in their current assignments

Training needs assessment – the process of outlining the training project, analyzing jobs, and identifying knowledge, skill, and ability deficiencies

Turnover – the permanent separation of employees from the organization, because of resignation, retirements, layoff, or discharge

EMPLOYEE ORIENTATION PROGRAMS

  • Familiarize employee with policies and procedures

  • Inform about organization’s structure and initiatives

  • Provide information regarding salary and benefits

  • Clarify employee rights and responsibilities

  • Conducted at the departmental and organizational level

  • Successful orientation programs

    • Are adequately funded

    • Include both management and employee members in the development of orientation program

ITEMS TO COVER IN ORIENTATION

  • Items covered by Human Resources

    • Company rules and regulations described in handbooks, reporting absences, use of phone, violence, drug use and other prohibitions

    • Pay schedules, rates, and use of time sheets or time clocks

    • Hours of work and overtime if applicable

    • Leave policy (sick days, holidays, vacations, etc.)

    • Employee benefits and eligibility

    • Completion of tax forms, benefit enrollment forms, etc.

  • Items covered by supervisor regarding the job and the department

    • New employee job description, responsibilities and goals

    • Department responsibilities

    • On-the-job training

    • Safety rules and emergency exits

    • Meal and break provisions

    • Location of rest room, break rooms, lockers, etc.

    • How to get tools and supplies

    • Tour of facility

    • Introduction to trainer or mentor

    • Step-by-step introduction to the job

TRAINING OBJECTIVES NEED TO BE SMART

  • Specific

  • Measurable

  • Action performed by trainee

  • Realistic

  • Time Framed

CHOICES OF TRAINING METHODS

  • Hawthorne studies – assessed the impact of physical and environmental influences (temperature, light, humidity, rest periods) on employee performance. Regardless of conditions employees perform more efficiently when given attention.

  • Group dynamics – factors that influence a group’s cohesiveness of effectiveness. Groups take on a distinct personality. Group goals may determine the success or failure of the training program.

  • Laboratory training – trainers must be perceived as having credibility in their area of instruction. Lab training examines personal and interpersonal behavior in a group setting. Interpersonal techniques are valuable for teaching people how to work together.

  • Need for achievement – the nature of the need for achievement is a strong determinant in occupational choice. Employees have a better perception of training when they view it as a help in career development.

PRINCIPLES OF INSTRUCTION

  • Actively involve the learner

  • Organize content effectively

  • Provide motivation

  • Promote concentration

  • Provide opportunity for practice

  • Provide a means of feedback, reinforcement, and reward

ADULT LEARNING PRINCIPLES

  • Learner’s need to know

  • Self-concept of the learner

  • Prior experience of the learner

  • Readiness to learn

  • Orientation to learning

  • Motivation to learn

LONG-TERM BENEFITS OF TRAINING

  • Building confidence in both employees and the organization

  • Reduce errors and resulting complaints

  • Reduce liability risk to the organization

  • Improve job satisfaction and motivation

  • Lesson employee conflict

  • Increase morale

  • Decrease turnover and absenteeism

TRAINING NEEDS ASSESSMENT (TNA)

  • Promotes a process view of training and development. The process includes assessment, design, and evaluation

  • Provides a database to support and enhance other HR activities

  • Provides quantitative results for justification of resources

ALTERNATIVES METHODS TO TNA FOR TRAINING IMPLEMENTATION

  • Analyze current job descriptions to identify critical skills

  • Implement training based on supervisory recommendations

  • Allow employees to volunteer for training programs

WAYS TO ASSESS NEEDS

  • Assessment centers – most often used for management development. Requires a complete battery of exercises and tests to determine strengths and weaknesses.

  • Attitude surveys – measures job satisfaction. Indicates where training would be beneficial

  • Exit interviews – gather information from departing employees in order to gain insight reasons for leaving and problems that may need addressing. Employees are given an explanation of benefits after separation and informed regarding disposition of final pay.

  • Performance appraisals – a formal written assessment of employee work contributions and the communication that takes place with employees before, during, and after the assessment.

  • Skills tests – determines needs for remediation as well as skills needed for advancement

ON THE JOB TRAINING METHODS

  • Job instruction training

  • Job rotation

  • Mentoring

OFF THE JOB TRAINING METHODS

  • Classroom

  • Group Discussion

  • Simulation methods

  • Role-playing

DISTANCE LEARNING

  • Interactive video

  • Web-based training

  • Computer-assisted training

EVALUATING THE TRAINING PROGRAM

  • Participant reaction – evaluate trainee’s attitudes and feelings

  • Knowledge gained in classroom – application of concepts are reflected by greater knowledge

  • Change in on-the-job behavior – assess changed behavior on the job

  • Measurable influence of the training on the organization – impacts the bottom line or improves productivity

BENEFITS OF HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT

  • Overcoming skill obsolescence

  • Improving worker productivity

  • Facilitate affirmative action

  • Staffing managerial jobs

  • Career growth management