Nature or characteristics of planning

There is a number feature or characteristics of planing that indicate towards its nature. These may be outlined as follows;

  1. Goal-oriented.

Planing is goal-orient in the sense that plans are prepared and implemented to achieve certain object.

  1. Basic to all managerial functions.

Planing is a function that is foundation of management process. Planing logically precedes all other functions of management, such as organization, staffing, etc. Because without plan there is nothing to control. Every managerial action has to be properly planned.

  1. Pervasive.

Planing is a function of all managers, although the nature and extent of planing will vary with their authority and level in the organization hierarchy. Managers at higher levels spend more time and effort on planing than do lower manager.

  1. Interdependent process.

Planing affects and is affected by the programs of different department in so programs constitute an integrated effort.

  1. Future-oriented.

Planing is forward looking and it prepares an enterprise for future.

  1. Forecasting integral to planing.

The essence of planing is forecasting. Plans are synthesis of various forecast.Thus, planing is inextricably(inseparably) bound up with planing.

  1. Continuous process.

Planing is an ongoing process. Old plans have to be prepared in case the environment undergoes a change. It shows the dynamic nature of planing.

  1. Intellectual process.

Planing is a mental or conceptual exercis.it therefore involves rational decision making: requires imagination, foresight, and sound judgement: and involves thinking before doing_thinking on the basis of facts and information.

  1. Integrating process.

Planning is essential for the enterprise as a whole. Newman and others have drawn our attention towards this feature of planning, “without planning, an enterprise will soon disintegrate: the pattern of its action would be as random as that made by leaves scampering (running quickly in short steps )before an autumn wind, and its employees would be as confused as ants in an upturned anthill.” If there are no plans, action will be a random activity in the organization, instead there will be chaos.

  1. Planning and control are inseparable.

Unplanned action cannot be controlled without control, planned actions cannot be executed plans furnish standards of control In fact ,planning is meaningful without control and control is planning aimless without planning . is measuring rod of efficiency.

  1. Choice Among Alternative Courses Of Action.

The need for planning arises due to several ways available for an action If there is only one way out left there is no need for planning

  1. Flexible process .

the principle of navigational change (i.e, change according to change in environment) applies to planning In other words effective planning requires continual checking on events and forecasts ,and the redrawing of plans to maintain a course towards desired goals .thus plans have to be adaptable to changing circumstances