Although Mintzberg argued that the 10 managerial roles he identified apply to all levels of management he did note that there may be some differences in emphasis at various levels. Subsequent research by others suggests that the figurehead role and several others such as liaison and spokesperson may become more important ass a manager moves up the hierarchy. On the other hand, the leader role appears to be more critical at the lower levels, a finding that supports the idea that the leading function itself has greater importance for lower-level managers than for those higher up.
In a study of the importance of the various roles, managers at all levels gave particularly high ratings to the entrepreneurial role. Several experts on innovation, however, argue that the entrepreneurial role varies in some important way depending on a manager’s level in the hierarchy.