Leadership, management & supervision

Theorists of organizational style:-


  1. Joan Woodward:

    Type: Contingency approach
    Focus on: Size of organization, Technology/task, environment
    1. custom production-custom technology
    2. mass production-tight supervision
    3. continuous production-controlled by manufacturing itself CAM
  2. Burns and Stalker:

    Type: Mechanistic and organic structure
    Focus on: Type of organization structure/industry
    1. Mechanistic-concentrating on specialized work
    2. Organic-tasks related to firm’s objective
  3. Fayol & Urwick:

    Type: Classic theorist
    Focus on: Specialization; Scalar principle; Authority, responsibility and accountability
    1. Planning
    2. Organizing
    3. Commanding
    4. Co-ordinating
    5. controlling
  4. Henry Mintzberg:

    Type: Organizational design
    Focus on: That organizational structure to be more complex than just hierarchical
    1. operational core
    2. strategic apex
    3. middle line
    4. technostructure
    5. support staff
  5. Max Weber:

    Type: Bureaucratic (office rules)
    Focus on: Legitimate authority; Vertical line of authority and responsibilities
    1. Clearly defined duties and responsibilities
    2. Hierarchy of staffs
    3. Elaborate office rules

Skills, traits and characteristics of a leader with reference to:

THEORISTS Hersey-Blanchard Handy Blake & Mouton
BASIS Direction and socio-emotional support Pragmatic approach style
Looks at Task behaviour

Relationship behaviour




Concern for production and people
  • Telling
  • Selling
  • Participating
  • delegating
Best fit approach


  • Task-oriented style
  • Country club style
  • Impoverished style
  • Middle road style
  • Team style


Role of management in accordance to the works of:




Stress on the need for enabling workers to become generalists, increase in knowledge of company and processes through job rotation and continual training Keeping in touch with customers, innovation and people (MBWA)-listening, teaching and facilitating Focus on values and goals, channels, programmes and relationships, project ideas



Duties and responsibilities

  1. planning
  2. organising
  3. controlling
  4. communication
  5. problem solving & decision making
  6. motivating and maintaining discipline

Objectives 4Ms

  1. machine capacity
  2. manpower
  3. materials
  4. money

Adair’s action centred theory on achieving tasks, building team and developing individuals.

  • Task needs
    • Boss-centred
    • Rule-centred
    • Task-centred
  • Group needs
    • Allow team time to develop
    • Team selection
    • Team building
    • Team culture
  • Individual needs
    • Training
      • Who to train
      • What to train
      • Where and how to hold training
      • Evaluation of training



  1. spread the workload
  2. motivate subordinates
  3. train staff and prepare them for higher responsibilities


  • A supervisor is part of the management team and his subordinates are NOT managers BUT operatives, clerks, fitters. Etc.  He plans, controls the work of his team and all he can delegate to the group is the work itself.
  • A supervisor is a type of manage whose main role is to ensure that specifies tasks are performed correctly and efficiently by a defined group of people.


  • Leadership deals with the interpersonal aspects of a manager’s job.  Leadership deals with change, inspiration, motivation and influence.  Leaders may not have formal authority.


  • Management is a process of setting and achieving the goals of the organization through the functions of planning, organizing, directing and controlling.
  •  Management has the formal authority to direct activity of others in achieving organizational goals.


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