The view that a business can have obligations that extend beyond economic role is not new in many respects. Throughout recorded history the roles of organizations producing goods and services for the marketplace were frequently linked with and include political, social, and/or military roles. For example, throughout the early evolutionary stages of company development in England (where organizations such as the Hudson Bay Company and the East India Company received broad mandates), there was a public policy understanding that corporations were to help achieve societal objectives such as the exploration of colonial territory, setting up settlements, providing transportation services, developing bank and financial services, etc.
During the nineteenth century, the corporation as a business form of organization evolved rapidly in the US. It took on a commercial form that spelled out responsibilities of the board of directors and management to shareholders (i.e. fiduciary duty). In this later evolutionary form, public policy frequently addressed specific social domains such as health and safety for workers, consumer protection, labour practices, environmental protection, etc. Thus, corporations responded to social responsibilities because they were obligated to be in compliance with the law and public policy. They also responded voluntarily to market demands that reflected consumer morals and social tastes. By the mid-point of the twentieth century, corporate social responsibility was being discussed in the US by business management experts such as Peter Drucker and in business literatures CSR emerged and continues to be a key business management, marketing, and accounting concern in the US, Europe, Canada, and other nations.
Traditionally in the United States, CSR has been defined much more in terms of a philanthropic model. Companies there made profits unhindered except by fulfilling their duty to pay taxes. Then they donated a certain share of the profits to charitable causes. It is seen as tainting the act for the company to receive any benefit from the giving. The first generation of CSR this way showed how companies can be responsible in ways that do not detract from and may contribute to commercial success. Corporate philanthropy is the practice of companies of all sizes and sectors making charitable contributions to address a variety of social, economic and other issues as part of an overall corporate citizenship strategy.
The second generation is now developing where companies and whole industries see CSR as an integral part of the long term business strategy. Now a days lot of companies are taking it seriously for good of business. From a progressive business perspective, CSR usually involves focusing on new opportunities as a way to respond to inter-related economic, societal and environmental demands in the marketplace. Many firms believe that this focus provides a clear competitive advantage and stimulates corporate innovation.
In the last decade, CSR and related concepts such as corporate citizenship and corporate sustainability have expanded. This has perhaps occurred in response to new challenges such as those emanating from increased globalization on the agenda of business managers as well as for related stakeholder communities. It is now more a part of both the vocabulary and agenda of academics, professionals, non governmental organizations, consumer groups, employees, suppliers, shareholders, and investors.
A third generation of CSR is needed in order to make a significant contribution to addressing poverty and environmental degradation. This will go beyond voluntary approaches by individual companies and will involve leadership companies and organizations influencing the market in which they operate and how it is regulated to re-mould whole markets towards sustainability.
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