Henry Mintzbeg (1987)

Mintzberg of McGill University is a noted management thinker and prolific writer on strategy. He advocates the idea that strategies are not always the outcome of rational planning. They can emerge from what an organization does without any formal plan. He defines strategy as: “a pattern in a stream of decisions and actions”. Mintzberg distinguishes between intended strategies and emergent strategies. Intended strategies refer to the plans that managers develop, while emergent strategies are the actions that actually take place over a period of time. In this manner, an organization may start with a deliberate design of strategy and end up with another form of strategy that is actually realized.