Factual observation is information gathered from observation that is a “fact”, that is, information attained that is true beyond a reasonable doubt and that will always remain the same in spite of observer used; for example, subject name, time and day of week, length of an interview and so on. Inferential observation is data presented by the observer based on his/her best interpretation of the effects observed, for example, customer interest in a product. That view can be different based on the observer. The observer gives and educated opinion for an inferentially observed piece of data.
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