Lavidge and Steiner propound the second model. This gives much importance to the cognitive evaluations. With an increase in competition and an enhancement in discerning abilities of potential buyers and users, information would play a greater role. The persuasive power of advertising could in itself be a function of the information content. This model takes the competition in to account. This competition arises between brands of a product and between substitutive product categories also as perceived by prospects constituting the target audience. The stage of liking following those of awareness and knowledge may refer to the advertising, thus emphasizing the creative aspects. Preference for the product or the brand may be the combined effect of product characteristics and their relevance to the target audience and of advertising.