There are a variety of ways in which misrepresentations or omissions can occur:
1. Suggesting that a small difference is important.
2. Artificial product demonstrations
3. Using an ambiguous or easily confused phrase.
4. Implying a benefit that does not fully or partially exist.
5. Implying that a product benefit is unique to a brand.
6. Implying that a benefit is needed or that a product will fulfill a benefit when it will not.
7. Incorrectly implying that an endorser uses and advocates the brand.
8. Making a claim without substantiation
9. Bait and switch
10. Identifying the advertising
12. Intellectual property