General Principles Of Management

Noting that principles of management are flexible, not absolute, and must be usable regardless of changing and special conditions, Fayol listed fourteen, based on his experience. They are summarized in the perspective.

  1. Division of work. This is the specialization that economists consider necessary for efficiency in the use of labor. Fayol applies the principle to all kinds of work, managerial as well as technical.

  1. Authority & responsibility. Here Fayol finds authority and responsibility to be related, with the latter arising from the former. He sees authority as a combination of official factors, deriving from the manager’ position and personal factors.

  1. Discipline. Seeing discipline as “respect for agreements which are directed at achieving obedience, application, energy, and the outward marks of respect. Fayol declares that discipline requires good superiors at all levels.

  1. Unity of command. This means that employees should receive orders from one superior only.

  1. Unity of direction. According to this principle, each group of actives with the same objective must have one head and one plan.

  2. Subordination of individual to general interest. This is self explanatory when the two are found to differ, management must reconcile them.

  1. Remuneration. Remuneration and methods of payment should be fair and afford the maximum possible satisfaction to employees and employer.

  1. Centralization. Without using the term “Centralization of authority.” Fayol refers to the extent to which authority is concentrated or dispersed. Individual circumstances will determine the degree that will give the best overall yield.

  1. Scalar chain. Fayol thinks of this as a chain of superiors from the highest to the lowest ranks, which, while not to be departed from needlessly, should be short circuited when to follow it scrupulously would be detrimental.

  1. Order. Breaking this into material and social order, Fayol follows the simple adage of a place for everything and everything in its place.

  1. Equity. Loyalty and devotion should be elicited from personnel by a combination of kindliness and justice on the part of managers when dealing with subordinators.

  1. Stability of tenure. Finding unnecessary turnover to be both the cause and the effect of bad management, Fayol points out its dangers and costs.

  1. Initiative. Initiative is conceived of as the thinking out and execution of a plan. Since it is one of the keenest satisfactions for an intelligent man to experience.

  1. Esprit de corps. This is principle that “in union there is strength” as well as an extension of the principle of unity of command, emphasizing the need for teamwork and the importance of communication in obtaining it.

Henri Fayol (1841-1925)

F. W. Taylor