Centralization vs decentralization


Where all office procedures are done at one central point within the organization

Central office functions
Manager is responsible for
1. Planning of clerical activities
2. General office services
3. Maintenance and replacement of office equipment and machinery


1. Specialized services
2. Economical use of expensive machinery and equipment
3. Less backlog of work
4. Possible personal contact and easier consultation and communication


  1. office systems may not be suitable to all departments
  2. Monotonous work – boring
  3. Rigid / inflexible office procedures
  4. Increase in paperwork and form filing


• Localized activities and operation
• Suitable if geographical distance from centre is great

• Work done and decision made more practical
• Better service
• Promptness in delivery

• Duplication of services/duties
• Extra information processing

Structure of a typical office

Internal structure of an organization depends very much on:-
1. Size of the enterprise
2. Nature and type of business
3. Number of employees
4. Involvement in import and export

An organisation chart

• A diagram of the formal relationships and communication flow between positions within an organisation
• Shows names of personnel
• Line /chain of command
• Level of authority/responsibility
• Supervisory structure
• Communication lines

Knowing who and where personnel are allows:-

• Better communication
• Accuracy in delivering messages, telephone call, instructions etc
• Effective handling of queries

• An organisation is always subdivided into different units or departments to provide specialised services.