Question And Answers

What do you mean by Training Climate and Pedagogy ? Explain.


Simply stated, ‘climate’ is what it feels like to work somewhere, how motivating that is, and consists of six clear elements; clarity, commitment, standards, responsibility, recognition and teamwork – all of which can be measured and managed.

Various influences in an organization that can affect the effectiveness of the formal and informal training. Although many variables may influence the effectiveness of the training and development efforts, the organization’s training climate appears to be playing an important role.


Managerial Support (MS):
1. Supervisors give recognition and credit to those who apply new knowledge and skills to
their work.
2. Supervisors match associates’ needs for personal and professional development with
opportunities to attend training.
3. Independent and innovative thinking are encouraged by supervisors.
4. Top management expects high levels of performance at all times.
5. Top management expects continuing technical excellence and competence.

Job Support (JS):
1. Gaining new information about ways to perform work more effectively is important in
this organization.
2. Job assignments are designed to promote personal development.
3. Learning new ways of performing work is valued in this organization.
4. Work assignments include opportunities to learn new techniques and procedures for
improving performance.
5. There is a strong belief that continuous learning is important to successful job performance.

Organizational Support (OS):
1. There is a performance appraisal system that ties financial rewards to use of newly
acquired knowledge and skills.
2. This organization offers excellent training programs.
3. Employees are provided with resources necessary to acquire and use new knowledge
and skills.
4. There are rewards and incentives for acquiring and using new knowledge and skills in
one’s job.
5. This organization rewards employees for using newly acquired knowledge and skills on
the job.





  • Identify characteristics of how people learn
  • Explain how groups form and develop
  • Use effective presentation skills
  • Introduce a presentation
  • Use questioning techniques
  • Summarize a presentation


  • Require learning to be relevant
  • Are highly motivated if they believe learning is relevant
  • Need participation and active involvement in the learning process
  • Desire a variety of learning experiences
  • Desire positive feedback
  • Have personal concerns and need an atmosphere of safety
  • Need to be recognized as individuals with unique backgrounds, experiences and learning needs
  • Must maintain their self-esteem
  • Have high expectations for themselves and their trainer
  • Have personal needs that must be taken into consideration


  • Allowing participants to provide input regarding schedules, activities and other events
  • Questioning and feedback
  • Brainstorming and discussions
  • Hands-on work
  • Group and individual projects
  • Classroom activities


  • Audiovisual aids
  • Illustrated lectures
  • Demonstrations
  • Brainstorming
  • Small group activities
  • Group discussions
  • Role plays and case studies
  • Guest speakers


  • Give verbal praise either in front of other participants or in private
  • Use positive responses during questioning
  • Recognize appropriate skills while coaching
  • Let the participants know how they are progressing toward achieving learning objectives


  • Use participant names as often as possible
  • Involve all participants as often as possible
  • Treat participants with respect
  • Allow participants to share information with others


  • Reinforce those practices and beliefs embodied in the course content
  • Provide corrective feedback in an appropriate manner
  • Provide training that adds to their sense of competence and self-esteem
  • Recognize participants’ own career accomplishments


  • They share a common purpose
  • They share a common experience in attending the course
  • Each member’s contributions and questions are valued and respected
  • An open and trusting climate develops
  • The members pay attention to how they work together


  • Observe
  • Develop increased awareness
  • Discuss observations with cotrainers
  • Develop options to support the group


  • Structure
  • Direction
  • Leadership


  • Follow a plan and use trainer’s notes
  • Communicate in a way that is easy to understand
  • Maintain eye contact with participants
  • Project your voice
  • Avoid the use of slang or repetitive words, phrases or gestures
  • Display enthusiasm
  • Move around the room
  • Use appropriate audiovisuals
  • Be sure to ask both simple and more challenging questions
  • Provide positive feedback
  • Use participant names
  • Display a positive use of humor
  • Provide smooth transitions between topics
  • Be an effective role model


  • Capture interest
  • Make participants aware of the clinical trainer’s expectations
  • Help foster a positive training climate


  • Reviewing the objectives
  • Asking a series of questions about the topic
  • Relating the topic to previously covered content
  • Sharing a personal experience
  • Relating the topic to real-life experiences
  • Using a case study or problem-solving activity
  • Using a videotape or other audiovisual aid
  • Using an imaginative transparency
  • Making a provocative statement
  • Giving a classroom demonstration
  • Using a content expert
  • Using a game, role play or simulation
  • Relating the topic to future work experiences


  • Ask a question of the entire group
  • Target the question to a specific participant
  • State the question, pause and then direct the question to a specific participant
  • The key in asking questions is to avoid a pattern
  • Use participant names during questioning
  • Repeat a participant’s correct response
  • Provide positive reinforcement


  • Use participant names during questioning
  • Repeat a participant’s correct response
  • Provide positive reinforcement




IT IS — The strategies, techniques, and approaches that teachers /trainers can use to facilitate learning.

Pedagogy is the ART or SCIENCE of being a TEACHER OR TRAINER. This is the modern interpretation. The word “PEDA” refers to CHILDREN , which is why some like to make the distinction between pedagogy (teaching children) and ANDRAGOGY(teaching adults). The Latin-derived word for pedagogy, EDUCATION, is much more widely used, and often the two are used interchangeably.

Pedagogy is also sometimes referred to as the correct use of teaching strategies.

Andragogy is the art and science of helping adults learn

Andragogy is based on four crucial assumptions about the characteristics of adult learners that are different from the assumptions about child learners . As persons mature, their self concept moves from being a dependent personality toward one of being a self-directing human being
they accumulate a growing reservoir of experience that becomes an increasing resource for learning their readiness to learn becomes oriented increasingly to the developmental tasks of their social roles, and their time perspective changes from one of postponed application of knowledge to immediacy of application.


Needs Assessment – What learning is needed?

We change learner performance by figuring out what each learner needs and which strategies will work to unlock patterns that have not been working. Good teachers/trainers are very good at diagnosis and the customization of instruction. They keep checking for understanding and they keep searching for the intervention that will enable each learner to succeed. They do everything possible to give learners good reasons and they view each and every dropout as a personal failure. They don’t shrug off dropouts as a minor issue. .

Professional Growth – How can I improve my teaching/training?

Effective teachers/trainers cannot afford to rest or coast for very long because the learners have a way of bringing a remarkable new set of challenges into the classroom each day. What worked with some learners last year may fail this year. A teacher/trainer who stops adding to her or his repertoire of effective strategies is too much like a knife grown dull for lack of sharpening.

Classroom Culture – How do I cultivate the class culture for learning?

While the importance of emotions and the social aspects of learning are rarely addressed by factory-style reformers, these aspects of classroom life are crucial. If a teacher /trainer does not create a culture that is safe, comfortable, encouraging and supportive, learning may not occur. The art of teaching/training includes the nurturing of group norms that allow learning to thrive. The science of teaching/training is less effective at reducing fears, freeing dreams and inspiring even disadvantaged students to reach for stars.

Strategy – How do I teach to maximize results?

Effective teachers/trainers possess rich repertoires of instructional moves and techniques. They devote time to matching strategy to situation. But they also understand the trial-and-error aspects of helping learners untangle patterns of failure and frustration. It is not a purely scientific process, as even great scientists like Marie Curie sometimes made great discoveries partially by accident (serendipity) and partially by perseverance over thousands of trials and tries. Strong teachers/trainers make sure their efforts to match technique to learners are guided by intuition, empathy and some of the softer aspects of human knowing.

Resource Management – How do I make do with what we have?

Shortages of resources are endemic in many classrooms and are often worse in poorly performing institutions . Time is always in short supply. But there are many other important resources that can frustrate a teacher’s/trainer’s good intentions. These may range from decent, current texts to paper, chalk, adequate heat and insulation from noise. The institutions may be short on leadership. Morale may be low because of outside threats, and bad local press coverage. But good teachers/trainers learn to make good things happen for learners despite these shortages, distractions or threats.

Problem Solving – What could go wrong and how do I cope?

Life in classrooms is ripe with surprises, but not all of these surprises need to stall forward progress. Smart teachers/trainers try to anticipate what might go wrong and have backup plans ready just in case. If the computer network suddenly freezes and a lesson requiring Internet access is suddenly blocked, the teacher/trainer immediately asks learners to brainstorm questions to pursue once the network recovers. No problem.

Orchestration – How do I orchestrate all the different aspects of pedagogy?

Some classrooms actually hum with a purposeful, productive energy. The teacher/trainer of such classes knows how to combine all of the elements of pedagogy mentioned here so that harmony, resonance and synergy result. Sports psychologists write of the ZONE champion athletes enter that makes remarkable performance possible. The same happens in classrooms when teachers/trainers are well schooled in pedagogy. They create a classroom ZONE that makes remarkable performance likely.

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Define Training. Explain the advantages of training to the employees and organisation.

  1. Training is a major activity in business.
    1. A recent survey found that companies spend around $1000 per employee on training, and that amount keeps going up.
    2. Even when people are hired with good skills and abilities, they often need some sort of training to acclimate them to the new job.
  2. Developing a successful training program takes careful planning and assessment before the actual training.
    1. Needs Assessment: What does someone need to know to do the job?
      1. Tasks Required
      2. KSAOs Required.
    2. Trainee Assessment
      1. Preparation: Do the trainees have the necessary background knowledge to learn the material?
        1. If not, what types of remedial steps can be taken?
      2. Motivation: Are the trainees motivated to learn? How can we set up the training program to keep motivation high?
        1. Goal Setting
          1. Specific Goals Improve Motivation
          2. Challenging Goals are Better than Easy Goals
          3. The Trainees need to Accept the Goal that is Set for Them
          4. Feedback on how much progress is being made toward the goals should be provided.
        2. Self-efficacy: Trainees must believe that they have the ability to learn the material. Otherwise they will not be motivated to learn.
    3. Organizational Asessment
      1. The training program is going to take place in an environment that is not the same as the one where the work will actually take place. The goal of training is to teach things that will actually be used in the workplace. Transfer Climate means how well is the actual workplace/organization organized in a way to promote the use of the newly learned material.
        1. There are many things that can create a negative transfer climate. For example:
          1. The actual tasks to be done may be different in some ways from the training tasks.
          2. The physical environment may be different.
          3. Supervisors and Co-workers may not respond favorably to the use of new methods.
          4. The consequences of failure may be different.
        2. If an organizational assessment tells you that there is a negative transfer climate, steps should be taken to change it. For example:
          1. Rewards & encouragement for using training on the job.
          2. Availability of training aids at the workplace.
          3. Setting goals for accomplishing a certain level of performance, by a certain time, once back on the job.
          4. ‘brush-up’ or refresher courses a few months after training.
        3. A negative training climate can also be attacked in the training program. For example:
          1. Changing to training tasks & training environments that are more similar to the actual workplace.
          2. Teaching resistance to negative responses from co-workers.
          3. Making it clear how the new behaviors will make the trainee’s life better (including improving performance, career advancement, etc).
  3. The Nature of the Actual Training
    1. “The goal in training system design is not perfect physical fidelity…”
      1. That is, the training task doesn’t have to be exactly the same as the actual work task.
    2. “… because the reason most training systems exist is that you cannot train an individual on the exact tasks that constitute the job …”
      1. For example, because it is too dangerous (e.g., fighter pilot) or too costly, etc.
      2. Is this true for every job?
    3. “In almost all situations, the task is some simulation of the actual job … In these situations, the goal is to choose simulated tasks that call for the KSAs that need to be learned. This type of training environment is typically known as one that has psychological fidelity … in the sense that it sets the stage for the behavioral processes or KSAs that need to be learned.”
    4. Some elements of successful training
      1. Practice to the point of overlearning
      2. Present Frequent Feedback
        1. Positive and immediate feedback is better than delayed and negative feedback.
      3. Material should be presented in a structured fashion that increases its meaningfulness.
      4. Part learning versus Whole learning
        1. Whole Learning (Learning the whole task at once) is best for simple tasks
        2. Part Learning (Breaking the task into parts and learning each one separately) is better for complex tasks.
      5. Massed versus Spaced Learning
        1. Massed Learning (Long training sessions, but ‘massed’ into one or a few time periods) can be more efficient cost effective.
        2. Spaced Learning (Shorter individual sessions, but spread out over many time periods) generally is better for long-term retention of the material.
  4. Post Training Assessment
    1. Two Goals: To Evaluate the Trainee & To Evaluate the Training Program
    2. Training-Level Criteria: How well does the trainee do, and how does the trainee react, immediately after the training.
      1. Reactions of the trainees (Reactions Criteria).
        1. How much do the trainees say they liked the training, and how much do they say they learned.
          1. Does this really reflect how good the training is, or how much the trainee’s performance will improve?
      2. Learning of the Material (Learning Criteria)
        1. A test of whether the trainees know what the training was supposed to teach, or can do what the training was supposed to teach.
          1. The test should be explicitly connected to the objectives of the training as it was identified in the needs assessment.
          2. The test should have construct validity.
    3. Performance Level Criteria (Criteria looking at how well the training transfers to the job).
      1. Behavior on the job (Behavior Criteria)
      2. Results for the organization (Results Criteria)
        1. “The achievement of some organizational objective”. Did the training do what the bosses wanted it to do (e.g., reductions in costs, in turnover, increase morale, improve efficiency,…).

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What do you mean by Assessment of Training needs ? Describe the methods of training needs.

Training Needs Assessment (TNA)

A training need exists when there is a gap between what is required of a person to perform their work competently and what they actual know.

A “training needs assessment”, or “training needs analysis”, is the method of determining if a training need exists and if it does, what training is required to fill the gap.

The results of training needs analysis will highlight the subject matter needed to be covered during the training course. The knowledge and skills gained during the training will increase abilities and allow participants to perform their jobs at an acceptable level. The needs assessment can be quite simple and obvious. For example, when a new information system is introduced, it is assumed that no one has the knowledge to operate it – and the training need is noted. However if the organization was switching systems, the need may not be so obvious. By conducting training needs analysis you can target the group that needs to be trained as well as hone in on exactly what training is required.

The purpose of conducting a needs assessment is to prevent a quick fix approach to business problems. A TNA done correctly will ensure the solution addresses the real issues and effectively focuses the appropriate resources, time and effort toward targeted solutions.

There is quite a bit of literature written on the topic. This paper presents only some major points.

The reasons for doing training needs assessment

  • To determine whether training is needed

  • To determine causes of poor performance

  • To determine content and scope of training

  • To determine desired training outcomes

  • To provide a basis of measurement

  • To gain management support

The Needs Assessment Process

The assessment can be as detailed and involved as needed. Factors to consider when considering the level of detail are time, money, number of people involved, criticalness of skill, anticipated return on investment?, resources available, etc. A comparison of some of the factors between in-depth and a mini assessment follows.



Type of Information




Multi-tiered approach




Focus groups

Document reviews


Focus groups


Widespread organizational involvement

Broad ranging objectives

Fewer people involved

Short term focus


Several months to a year

Few days to a week





Linked o defined outputs

Immediate, quick results


High profile and risk

Lower risk

Determine whom to assess

Again this depends on the goal and depth of the analysis. Categories of people can include:

Senior management

Human resource personnel

Target population


Target population managers


Direct reports (those who report to target population)


Co-workers and peers

Industry experts or observers

Steps in the Needs Assessment Process

Step One: Identify Problem Needs

Determine organizational context

Perform gap analysis

Set objectives

Step Two: Determine Design of Needs Analysis

Establish method selection criteria

Assess advantages and disadvantages for methods

Step Three: Collect Data

Conduct interviews

Administer questionnaires and surveys

Review documents

Observe people at work

Step Four: Analyze Data

Conduct qualitative analysis

or Conduct Quantitative Analysis?

Determine solutions/recommendations

Step Five: Provide Feedback

Write report and make oral presentation

Determine next step – Training needed?

Step Six: Develop Action Plan

Once this formal needs assessment process is completed the information is used as the basis for training design, development and evaluation. However you must continue to assess the attitudes, knowledge and skill level of participants prior to each session. Different audiences may have different needs. This can be done both through a basic questionnaire sent just prior to a specific training event and also during the welcome time of each session.

1. Excerpts from:

Basic Training For Trainers, A handbook for new trainers; Second Edition – Gary Kroehnert, McGraw-Hill Book Company Sydney, 1995.

The Trainers Handbook, Karen Lawson, Jossey-Bass Pfeiffer San Francisco; 1998.

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Full time MBA vs. Executive MBA

MBA or Masters of Business Administration is graduate level degree that covers wide range of business studies like marketing, sales, finance, human resources, operations etc. Students who are looking to enter the corporate world, and get knack of how businesses are dealt – MBA is custom made for them.

Students who are applying for an MBA need to have an undergraduate degree in any field. You don’t need to be a business undergraduate to go for an MBA degree.

The curriculum of an MBA degree covers a wide range of subjects – that help the students to understand every single aspect of how to run a business. The students are even given an option to choose a specialization from a variety of fields; depending on their interest.

MBA also gives you the advantage of a better pay package – According to Forbes; you would almost get a 50% hike on your salary post your MBA degree as compared to pre-MBA degree. If you pass out from the big leagues like the IIM’s – They have seen a 28.38% hike on international salaries than last year and 10% on domestic salaries. Most of the companies come in for campus placements and they pay a lot to get the crème dela crème, the highest average salary that was offered in 2014 was 41 Lakh.

There are many types of MBA programs, but two of the most sought after are a full-time MBA and an Executive MBA – These are the difference between the two.

If you are in a confused state and you do not know which one to go for, here is a brief glance of what makes both full time MBA and an executive MBA different.


  • Full-Time MBA
    • Completed an undergraduate degree or you are in the final year – when you are applying.
    • Cleared the entrance exams like CAT, MAT, XAT, GMAT etc.
    • Got the required pass percentage. Most colleges range between 50% – 60%
    • If you want to study abroad, then you might require work experience depending on the college to apply to.
  • Executive MBA
    • You should have an undergraduate degree plus an additional 5 year plus work experience if required
    • This degree is specifically made for working executives.
    • Some colleges have a minimum age group. Like IIM has a minimum age of 27 and there is no upper limit
    • GMAT scores that is obtained between 4 years of the commencement of the program (optional – depending on the college)
  • Time
    • Full Time MBA: This is 2 year course – which is divided systematically into seminars, lectures, projects etc.
    • Executive MBA: This is a 1 year diploma – which has a similar course structure to a full-time MBA – but it is more compact than a full time degree
  • Purpose
    • Full Time MBA:Undergraduates who want to get into the business field, or else is people what to shift their field of work – this degree is well suited for them.
    • Executive MBA:Though it has a similar sort of structure as a full time degree, it is custom made for working professionals – people who have been in the corporate industry; or have worked for long and want to come into the business world – this diploma would suit their purpose.
  • Money
    • Full Time MBA:This course is slightly cheaper than an executive one. For example it would range between 10 Lakh and could go up depending on the prestige and the caliber of the college.
    • Executive MBA:This is slightly more expensive than full time. It could range between 20 Lakh to 33 Lakh approx. depending on the college. For example IIM A fees are almost 22Lakh and ISB is 34 Lakh.

Most of the time students make the decision based on the money or the time factor. But you have to realize both of the programs are equally good and worth it. Just make an informed decision and be sure of which ever program you choose for. Best of luck for your future.

Trishna MukherjeeAuthor Bio: Trisha is a professional writer and adviser on education and career. She is an ardent reader, a traveler and a passionate photographer. She wants to explore the world and write about whatever comes across her way.





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The Dynamic Relationship in Business

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  • This means that the relationship in business is always changing. 
  • A person may be an employee in the morning, a consumer at lunchtime and an investor by evening.
  • All of the stakeholders are needed in business and are interconnected. 
  • The entrepreneur needs the investor for capital and the investor needs the entrepreneur for the ideas, the employer needs the employee to do work and the employee needs the employer in order to earn a wage.
  • These relationships are ever changing.

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  • An interest group is an organisation representing a particular body of people who have a common interest
  • Interest groups promote and protect members interests
  • Trade Unions are interest groups representing workers e.g. SIPTU, ASTI

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  • These services include , Market research agencies, financial institutions, Accountants, Solicitors, Insurance companies, Employer and employee associations like IBEC and Advertising agencies.

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    Who's Buying? Who's Selling?: Understanding Consumers and Producers (Lightning Bolt Books - Exploring Economics)
  • Producers are successful entrepreneurs who supply the market with finished and partly finished goods
  • A producer can also be described as a supplier because he/she supplies goods to consumers and also raw materials to other firms
  • When a supplier agrees to provide raw materials for the production process, he/she enters a contract with the producer.

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Who is a Consumer?

    2009 Consumer Action Handbook
  • This is a person who purchases goods and services at a given agreed price as set out in the market
  • A consumer aims to satisfy their needs and wants purchasing necessity goods and luxury goods
  • When a consumer purchases a good or service then they enter a contract. The receipt is proof of this purchase.

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  • An employee is a person who works for an employer in return for a wage
  • An employee carries out the essential tasks to make the business a success
  • Those employed in management positions will be paid more than other workers due to their responsibilities.
  • Employees may need motivation and ongoing training e.g. giving a reward at the end of the month for performance
  • Many employees join trade unions

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