Policies And Procedures

Planning process :Steps in planning

The process of planning involves the following steps

  • Analysing environment. At the outset the internal and external environment is analyzed in order to identify company ;s strengths and weaknesses (in internal environment)and opportunities and threats (existing in the external environment) this is also known as SWOT (Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities and Threats ) analysis .

  • Establishing objectives or goals in the light of the environmental scanning (study)clear or probable opportunities that can be availed are identified in order to avail them objectives or goals are clearly defined in specific terms along with priorities in all the key areas of operations major problems associated with such objectives are also identified and defined ,so that there may be special emphasis on their planned solutions.

  • Seeking necessary Information :

All relevant data and facts are collected from internal and external sources such as Availability of supplies, physical and human recourses of the company , finance of disposal, relevant government policy etc then such collected information and factors are analyzed. These information can be used in two ways

  1. To make necessary modifications in objective and goals

  2. To take help them in premising assumption.

Establishing the planing premises

In order to develop consistent and coordinate plans ,it is necessary that planing is based upon carefully considered assumption and predictions

Identifying the alternative course of action.

After established the goals or objective and taking other related steps , feasible alternative programs or course of action are searched out . Impossible or highly difficult propositions are left out .

Evaluating the alternatives.

Problems consequences of each alternative course of action in terms of its pros and cons (eg Cost, benefits, risks etc) are assessed and then relative importance of each of them is found out by looking at their overall individual strengths and limitations especially in the light of present objective and the environment of the company.

Selecting the alternative or Course of action.

The alternative which appears to be most feasible and conducive to the accomplishment of company’s objective, is selecting the final plan of action as strategy.

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Advantages benefits of Planning

  1. Provide a sense of direction.

Without planning manager would fail to make proper decisions , and hance there would be chaos ,not activity in the organisation. Planing desired decision making and efforts on guided path leading to the desired destination.

  1. Offsets (balance ) future uncertainty and change.

Uncertainty and risk are inevitably associated with business and its operations. Through planing cannot eliminate these two element plans of nature and risk because they provide a better understanding of likely future events.

  1. Focuses attention on objective and results.

Organisation exists because people have common objective. Managers are charge of organisation for the purpose of attaining results .if attention are not focused on objective and results.

  1. Causes efficient operations.

Planing make things occur ,improves the competitive strength of the organisation, guides proper utilisation channels for resources and facilities integrates resources and efforts, aligns internal and external environment

  1. Provides the basis for decentralization

Decentralisation of authority signifies dispersal of decision making power to the lowest level in the organisation .Well-designed plans serve as guides to subordinates and reduce the risk involved in delegation of authority.

  1. Guides Rational decision making

Decisions are primarily future oriented .plans cover to the future activities without plans there is no sound basis for making future oriented decision

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Stratigies and Policies

STRATEGY :

The determination of the purpose and the basic long term objectives of an enterprise, and the adoption of course of action and allocation of resource necessary to achieve these aims .

POLICIES :

General statements or understanding that guide thinking in decision making, the essence of policies is the existence of discretion , with in certain limits, in guiding decision making .

Both strategies and policies give direction to plans. They provide the framework for plans and serve as a basis for the development of tactics and other managerial activities .

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The Strategic Planing Process Steps

  • INPUTS:

It includes

  • People

  • Capital

  • Managerial skills

  • Technical skills

  • Goals of claimants

  • Enterprise Profile :

It is the starting point for determining where the company is and where it should go.

  • Orientation Of Top Managers:

Orientation of top managers are important for formulating the strategy .

  • Purpose And Major Objectives :

It is the endpoint towards which the activities of the enterprise are directed .

  • External Environment :

The external environment is scanned for technological developments for products and services on the market, and for other factors necessary in determining the competitive situation of the enterprise .

  • Internal Environment :
    It should be audited and evaluated the firm’s resources, weaknesses and strengths .

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Kinds Of Strategies And Policies

Major kinds of strategies and policies need to developed in areas such as growth, finance, organization, personnel, public relations, products or services and marketing .

Competitive Strategies By Porter :

Professor porter identified three generic competitive strategies related to :

  • Overall cost leadership

  • Differentiation strategy .

  • Focused strategies .

Effectively Implement Strategies :

To implement strategies effectively, managers must communicate the strategies and planning premises to all who should know them and must make sure that plans contribute to and reflect the strategies and goals they serve . Managers must also review strategies requirely, develop contingency strategies, and be sure that the organization structure of the enterprise fits its panning programs managers need to make learning about planning and implementing strategy an on going process .

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Planning and Policy Development

TERMINOLOGY

Core Competency – a central or important capacity of an organization

Demand – the amount of resources needed by an organization

Forecasting– involves making the best possible judgment about some future event

Human Resource Information System (HRIS) – technological system used to collect, store, and retrieve employee data

Human Resource Planning – a process that attempts to maintain appropriate staffing levels of qualified employees to achieve organizational objectives (supply and demand). Efficient and effective human resource planning means efficient use of resources and implementation of systematic strategies to meet objectives. Business objectives are translated into skills and abilities needed to achieve specific job requirements to meet the demands in the future business environment.

Labor Market Analysis – process of monitoring external staffing sources, considering the unemployment rate, characteristics of the labor force, and local training programs

Organizational Capacity – ability of an organization to pursue and maintain a competitive advantage for the products and services it offers

Planning – process of determining organizational objectives and selecting a future course of action

Policy – a general statement that serves to guide decision making

Procedure – a guide to action usually to achieve a specific purpose

Rule – specifies what is required

Skill Inventories – collect and consolidate basic information about all of the organization’s employees

Standing Plans – used repeatedly in managerial situations that recur

Strategic Human Resource Management – the linking of the human resource management strategic goals and objectives in order to improve business performance and develop organizational culture

Strategic planning – process of determining strategic objectives and actions needed to achieve the organization’s mission

Succession Charts – list key positions and display information on their incumbents and the readiness of different candidates for promotion to the position

Succession Planning– process by which one or more candidates are identified for key posts. It is allows for a broader candidate search, faster decisions, and allows for the auditing of a talent pool. Succession planning fosters a corporate culture as a group of people share key skills, experiences, and values seen important to the organization

Supply – the amount of resources available to an organization

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ACTIVITIES LEADING TO CORE COMPETENCIES

  1. Shared problem solving

  2. Integrating new technologies

  3. Importing knowledge

  4. Experimenting

HUMAN RESOURCE SHOULD UNDERTAKE STRATEGIC PLANNING

  1. To meet future staffing needs

  2. To cope with change

  3. To attract high talent workforce

  4. To remain competitive

  5. To help satisfy equal employment opportunity

HUMAN RESOURCE PLANS ARE CONTINUOULY CHANGING BECAUSE

  1. Required knowledge, skills, and abilities may change

  2. Technology changes

  3. Supply: Workforce availability shifts

  4. Supply: Retention of workforce varies with strategies for recruitment, retention, transfer, retirement, and termination

  5. Demand: Changes in the environment, workforce, or organization

PLANNING IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT

  1. External Relations: Planning is an open process in government. External relations have strong input into the governmental planning process. Very political. Governmental planning efforts receive much more media coverage than do private sector.

  2. Management Responsibility: Managers must deal with constituents (internal and external) demand in additional to planning and evaluation of their program. In government, making services available takes precedence over cost efficiency.

  3. Budgeting: Budgets tied to political and not strategic issues. Governmental budgeting cycles require a greater lead time than private sector. There is a greater emphasis on contingency planning.

  4. Human Relations: Governmental employees may have constitutional rights that private sector employees do not have. Governments often have a monopoly on services performed. Key individuals may be in a position to manipulate planning efforts.

NEED FOR PLANNING IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT

  1. Strategic planning is relatively new to local government but has proved to be highly effective.

  2. The public demand for better services pressures government to focus on results.

  3. Ethical, legal, and environmental issues pressure government to be more socially responsible.

  4. Integration of information systems becomes more important as governments deal with fragmented and outdated systems.

LATENESS

Problems arise when employees are often late arriving for work or returning from lunch. Their work may not get done on a timely basis, or they may put extra burdens on co-workers. It is important for supervisors and employees to know organizational policies on lateness. Supervisors must alert employees with a lateness problem to the problems they create and any possible penalties.

APPLICABLE REGULATIONS:

  • Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)

Most employees arrive at work on time, or even early. Some don’t even use their full lunch break. Others, however, have problems starting work on time. They have a variety of reasons, from tough commutes to personal responsibilities, from a poor sense of time to simply not feeling that their arrival time makes much difference.

Being late on occasion with a good reason is not a problem. But it is important that employees know they are responsible for working a full day and meeting their responsibilities to co-workers and the customer or public as the case may be.

Frequent lateness puts burdens on others, so let employees know policies and take action before lateness problems get out of hand. Be sure to communicate policies on lateness. Be consistent. Ask for and respond to any questions. Let it be know that the hours of work must apply to everyone.

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POLICIES ON LATENESS SHOULD INCLUDE:

  • What time work begins

  • How long past that time is considered late

  • How to schedule and report planned and unplanned late arrivals

  • How may late arrivals and are permitted per year

  • What disciplinary steps may apply to excessive or chronic lateness

EXPLAIN WHY IT IS IMPORTANT TO BE ON TIME

  • Make sure hours worked are equal to wages received

  • Demonstrate that a job is a serious commitment

  • Respect the time and needs of others

EXPLAIN HOW PAY POLICIES APPLY TO LATENESS

  • Hourly employees are paid only for time actually worked

  • Exempt employees wages for lateness may not be docked (FLSA Regulations)

  • Employers may ask exempt employees to make up time missed due to lateness.

KEEP RECORDS OF EMPLOYEE LATENESS

  • Keep time records, (recording sheets or time clocks)

  • Lateness records are valuable if disciplinary steps are needed

  • Attendance should be noted in employee records and performance appraisals

TALK PRIVATELY WITH EMPLOYEES WHO ARE OFTEN LATE

  • Point out number of times they have arrived late. Note impact on work and on others

  • Ask for a explanation of frequent lateness

  • Listen closely to employee’s response to help plan next steps

TRY TO HELP EMPLOYEES RESOLVE PROBLEMS THAT CAUSE LATENESS

  • Work starting time may conflict with some employee’s family or commuting schedules

  • An employee may wait to leave for work until children are picked up for school

  • The bus or train schedule may force the employee to arrive very early or somewhat late

  • The employee may have a medical problem that requires early morning treatment

SHOW UNDERSTANDING OF THE EMPLOYEE’S CONFLICTS

RESTATE THE IMPORTANCE OF WORKING HOURS THAT ARE FAIR TO THE ORGANIZATION, COWORKERS, AND CUSTOMERS

EXPLORE SCHEDULE MODIFICATION THAT COULD FIT YOUR POLICY AND ELIMINATE THE LATENESS PROBLEM

  • Look at flextime, job sharing, or telecommuting if these options are applicable

  • See if the employee could start and leave a little later to better fit a train or bus schedule

EXPLORE BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION THAT COULD IMPROVE THE EMPLOYEE’S ON-TIME ARRIVAL

  • Encourage the employee to set his or her watch ahead or buy a LOUD alarm clock

TAKE DISCIPLINARY STEPS IF NECESSARY

  • Follow progressive disciplinary steps

  • Be sure the situation calls for discipline

  • Be sure you are aware of any reasons for lateness and the employee’s understanding of the problem

  • Apply discipline consistently

USE POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT TO ENCOURAGE AND REWARD BEING ON TIME

  • Tell on-time arrivals you notice and appreciate their promptness (include in performance appraisal)

  • Credit employees who improve their on-time performance

  • Consider group rewards when everyone is consistently on time and working hard

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Analyzing Jobs and Writing Job Descriptions

TEMINOLOGY

Adverse Impact – when the selection rate for any protected group is less that 80% (4/5) of the selection rate for the majority group or less than 80% of the group’s representation in the relevant labor market, discrimination exits.

Job analysis – a systematic way to gather and analyze information about the content and human requirement of jobs, and the context in which jobs are performed. Without an accurate profile of each job, what skills, experience and qualities are necessary to do the job then human resource planning is difficult, training and development cannot be carried out meaningfully and performance management and recruitment and selection will be carried out in an information vacuum.

Job content – concerned wit the responsibilities and tasks an employee performs

Job description – indicates the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job. It identifies what is done, why it is done, where it is done, and how it is done. It sets out the nature of the relationships between a specific position and other positions within and outside the organization and outlines the areas of the position’s expected contribution to the achievement of divisional or overall organizational goals.

Job specifications – a listing of knowledge, skills, and abilities, (SKA’s) an individual needs to perform a job satisfactorily. A job specification is a formal outline describing the place of the position within the organization, the positions function and purpose, and the collection of duties, responsibilities. (See competencies)

Job evaluation – provides a systematic basis for determining the relative worth of jobs within the organziation

Job responsibilities – (work behaviors) obligations to perform certain tasks or duties

Competencies – basic characteristics that can be linked to enhanced performance by individuals or team of individuals (see job specifications). These are used in compensation, hiring decision, orientation and training programs, and information provided to employees who want to upgrade their qualifications for promotion.

Competency model – a validated decision took, correlated to job activities that describe key knowledge, skills, and abilities for performing a specific job.

Subject matter expert – experienced job incumbents and supervisors who provide advice on work, content, worker requirements, and performance standards to job analysts and test developers

Class specification – a description of a group of jobs that are similar in duties and responsibilities, have the same entrance requirements, and receive the same rate of pay

Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA) – targeted private industry initially setting a minimum wage for workers and requiring overtime for hours worked over 40 per week, time keeping records and reporting. This Act is administered by the Department of Labor. In 1985 the U. S. Supreme Court brought all functions of local government under the provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act.

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) – This Act protects people with disabilities from job discrimination. An employer may not make any pre-employment inquiries about whether an applicant has a disability either on application forms, in job interviews, or in background or reference checks. In the hiring process, employers are expected to describe the essential functions for the job and then ask the applicants if they can perform them. If an otherwise qualified person needs an accommodation, it is that person’s responsibility to request it and the employer’s responsibility to decides whether it is reasonable. This Act is administered by the EEOC. The ADA has had a major impact on job analysis and job descriptions.

This federal law prohibits employment discrimination by public and private employers in all personnel decisions because of a mental or physical disability. The individual’s impairment must meet the definition of a disability. An individual with a disability is a person who: 1) Has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities; 2) has a record of such an impairment; or 3) is regarded as having such an impairment.

The employer is required to make a reasonable workplace accommodation that does not constitute an undue hardship for the employer. A reasonable workplace accommodation allows the individual with the disability to perform at the same level of effectiveness and efficiency as any qualified non-disabled employee.

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METHODS OF ANALYZING JOBS

  1. Interview – Job holders discuss their positions with a job analyst who then prepares a draft description for the agreement and approval of the job holder and that person’s supervisor.

  2. Observation – The job analyst watches the individual performing the job and takes notes describing the duties performed. The method is most appropriate for lower-level, repetitive cycle duties.

  3. Questionnaires and Worksheets – The most frequently used method of collecting job analysis information. These can be ambiguous and difficult for a typical employee to complete. Employees may be unwilling or unable to provide accurate responses.

(The Position Analysis Questionnaire was developed by Purdue University researchers. To complete the questionnaire, the job analyst must rank 194 items in terms of the extent to which they are used by the job holder in performing the requirements of the job. The items are arranged in six categories: information input, mental processes, and work output, relationships with others, job context, and other job characteristics. The ratings can be used to compare jobs in terms of their demands for decision making, skills use, and physical activity, operating equipment and processing informal information.)

  1. Secondary Data – The use of survey data on similar jobs or benchmarked positions at comparable institutions.

The Dictionary of Occupational Titles offers 20,000+ standardized description, analysis and classification of jobs. This approach allows each facet of a job to be examined and rated, and for those ratings to be used in making comparisons of the same or similar jobs in different organizations, or of different jobs in a single organization, as well as preparing a job description. This is no longer being published but can be found in a newer version on the Internet in the Department of Labor’s Occupational Information Network or O*NET.

USES OF JOB ANALYSIS

  1. Production of job descriptions and job specifications for use in recruitment and selection

  2. Definition of job responsibilities and work criteria for use in individual performance planning and reviews

  3. Organization and management of training and development programs to meet performance related skills and knowledge needs

  4. Assessment of organizational and individual needs, abilities and potential for use in human resources planning

  5. Provision of factual data as a basis for job evaluation and remuneration management

  6. Analysis of work and structural relationships for use in job design and organizational reviews

  7. Health and safety planning – identifies hazardous jobs

  8. Employment relations – Job descriptions and job specifications can reduce conflict over job content decisions.

APPROACHES TO JOB ANALYSIS

  1. Task inventoriesa job-oriented approach which looks at how work actually is performed. The inventory consists of a list of the different tasks making up the job and corresponding ratings of each task, carried out by the person doing the job. Each task may be further subdivided into sub categories. Each task is described using action words and direct objects.

  2. Functional job analysisa task oriented approach and is the most common non- questionnaire approach.

  3. Critical incident techniquea worker- oriented approach which produces a set of KSA’s. Basically a critical incident is an example of job success or failure. The supervisor supplies lists of actions which typify a good or bad employee.

  4. Position analysis questionnaire – a worker-oriented technique used to analyze and describe jobs in quantitative terms.

CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE JOB DESCRIPTIONS

  1. Simple – Simple language and clear statements are more likely to be understood by those who are to use the description.

  2. Not overstated – do not include minor tasks or use of inflated wording.

  3. Not be confused with position specifications

  4. Produced jointly and agreed upon by analyst, supervisor, and job holder

CONTENT OF JOB DESCRIPTIONS

  1. Job identificationthe title should describe the job role and indicate its level in the organization.

  2. Purpose of the job – A single sentence is usually sufficient to describe why the job exists and is an essential introduction to any job description.

  3. Reporting relationships – designates the position’s location in the organization.

  4. Authorities – The job description may set out the job holder’s authorities to act in areas such as the approval of expenditure, or the recruitment or dismissal of staff.

  5. Duties and tasks – Outline of major areas of responsibility and tasks. Also who does the job holder report to? Which positions report directly to the job holder? What other staff does the job holder have management responsibility for? Are there any significant functional relationships?

  6. Working conditions and other significant information -Significant features of the job such as heat, cold, night work etc.

COMPETENCIES OR COMPONENTS OF A JOB SPECFICATION

  1. Position identificationprovides basic information including the job title, classification, and the administrative unit and subunit in which it is placed.

  2. Broad purpose – generally stated in one or two sentences, which defines the broad purpose to be served by having this position, and gives an overview of what the job does and what is expected to be achieved.

  3. Reporting/working relationships – indicates the position to which this one reports, and positions reporting to the one being described. Significant working relationships within the organization are also identified here.

  4. Key outcomes and associated activities – is used to identify expected outcomes, as well as the means for achieving them.

WRITING JOB SPECIFICATIONS

  1. Fill in the position criteria form

    1. Human Resources posts and advertises job openings based on information supervisors provide

    2. Define the job including

      1. Job title

      2. Key responsibilities

      3. Knowledge and experience factors

      4. Intellectual factors

      5. Motivational factors

      6. Personality factors

  2. Prioritize the desired skills and experience

    1. They may be desired, preferred, or helpful. (differentiate between “musts” and “wants”)

  3. Job specs only on jobs tasks and responsibilities

    1. Avoid anything that is arbitrary, artificial, or unnecessary

    2. Standards unrelated to job performance may illegally discriminate against candidates because of their sex, age, race, religion or disability

    3. Extraneous qualifications could expose you and your employer to lawsuits

    4. They could discourage the best-qualified applicants

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