Negotiation is made up of five steps:- preparation and planning, Definition of ground rules, Clarification and justification, bargaining and problem solving and closure and implementation.
Preparation and planning:- Before the start of negations one must be aware of conflict the history leading to the negotiation the people involved and their perception of the conflict expectations from the negotiations etc.
Definition of ground rules:- Once the planning and strategy is development one has to begin defining the ground rules and procedures with the other party over the negotiation itself that will do the negotiation. Where will it take place? What time constrains, if any will apply? To what issues will negotiations be limited? Will there be a specific procedure to follow in an impasse is reached? During this phase the parties will also exchange their initial proposals or demands.
Clarification and justification:- When initial positions have been exchanged both the parties will explain amplify, clarify, bolster and justify their original demands. This need not be confrontational. Rather it is an opportunity for educating and informing each other on the issues why they are important and how each arrived at their initial demands. This is the point where one party might want to provide the other party with any documentation that helps support its position.
Bargaining and problem solving :- The essence of the negotiation process is the actual give and take in trying to hash out an agreement. It is here where concessions will undoubtedly need to be made by both parties.
Closure and Implementation:- The final step in the negotiation process is formalization the agreement that has been worked out and developing and procedures that are necessary for implementation and monitoring. For major negotiations – this will require hammering out the specifics in a formal contract.
Mediator:- Mediator is a neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning and persuasion, suggesting alternatives and like. Mediators are widely used in labor-management negotiations and in civil court disputes. To be effective the mediator must be perceived as neutral and non-coercive.
Arbitrator:- An arbitrator is a third party with the authority to dictate an agreement. Arbitration can be voluntary (requested) or compulsory. The authority of the arbitrator varies according to the rules set by the negotiators
- Simple Structure:- Simple structure is characterized by a low degree of departmentalization, wide span of control, authority centralized in a single person and little formalization. The simple structure is a “felt ” organization, it usually has only two or three vertical levels, a lower body of employees and one individual in whom the decision making authority is centralized. The simple structure is most widely practiced in small businesses in which the manager and the owner are one and the same. The strength of the simple structure less in its simplicity. It’s fast flexible and inexpensive to maintain and accountability is dear.
- Bureaucracy:- The key concept that underlies all bureaucracy is standardization. It is a structure with highly routine operating tasks achieved through specialization very formalized rules and regulations, tasks that are grouped into functional departments, centralized authority, narrow span of control and decision making the chain of command.The primary strength of bureaucracy lies in its ability to perform standardized activities in a highly efficient manner. Putting like specialties together in functional departments results in economics of scale, minimum duplications of personal and equipment. Furthermore bureaucracy gives opportunity to less talented and hence less costly middle and lower level managers. The pervasiveness of rules and regulations substitutes for managerial discretion. Standardized operations, coupled with high formalization allow decision making to be centralized. There is little need therefore for innovative and experienced decision makers below the level of senior executives.
- Matrix Structure:- Matrix structure creates dual line of authority and combines functional and product departmentalization .The strength of functional departmentalization lies in putting like specialists together, which minimizes the number necessary while allowing the pooling and sharing of specialized resources across products. Its major disadvantage is the difficulty of coordinating the tasks of diverse functional specialists so that their activities are completed on time and within budget. Product departmentation, on the other hand, has exactly the opposite benefits and disadvantages. It facilitates coordination among specialties to achieve on-time completion and meet budgets targets. Further more, it provides clear responsibility for all activities related to a product, but with duplication of activities and costs. The matrix attempts to gain the strength of each, while avoiding their weaknesses. The most obvious structural characteristics of the matrix is that it breaks the unity of command concept. Employees in the matrix have two bosses-their functional department managers and their product managers. Therefore, the matrix has a dual chain of command.The strength of the matrix lies in its ability to facilitate coordination when the organization has a multiplicity of complex and interdependent activities. As an organization gets larger, its information processing capacity can become overloaded. In a bureaucracy, complexity results in increased formularization. The direct and frequent contact between different specialists in the matrix can make for better communication and more quickly reaches the people who need to take account of it.
Strength: Physical, emotional, intellectual and spiritual. Physical and emotional weakness leads to irritability. A strong, healthy body developed through proper diet, exercise and pranayama techniques helps reduce stress at the physical level. Through satsang and appropriate learning gained therein, the mind can be strengthened. Love, compassion and friendship are valuable strength-givers that help us cope with stress.
The scriptures say that knowledge of the Self cannot be gained without inner strength. Rabindranath Tagore, in a poem, prays to the Lord not to remove all obstacles, but instead, he asks for strength to bear them. Before the start of the Mahabharata war Arjun was seized with a bout of emotional weakness and he refused to fight the war. Lord Krishna rescued him by giving him emotional strength.
Traffic control: We need to regulate and control our thoughts. We can cope with stress best if our thoughts are orderly and methodical. Unnecessary accumulation leads to clogging of the mind. The key lies in being able to live one moment at a time. Eat while eating, work while working, leave the home at home and the office in the office. Remember, however long we have to travel we can only take one step at a time. Worrying only reduces efficiency and then even simple tasks cannot be completed correctly and in time.
Re-design: We tend to view life and ourselves through our own philosophy. A readjustment or reorientation in this philosophy increases our capacity to bear heavier loads.
Erase the ego: The ego, anger, fear and jealousy are negative emotions that reduce efficiency, leading to mental weakness, causing stress. Too much emphasis on the ego, or abrogation of doer ship is responsible for increasing stress. Sri Rama asked Sri Hanuman how he was able to cause so much havoc in Lanka and yet return unscathed. Hanuman disclaimed all responsibility. He said, “I did not do it, you did it through me”. There is a higher power or strength working through us.
Sharing your feeling: Share your wealth, knowledge, workload or anything else you have. By and large people do not know how to share or delegate. Lord Vishnu as the manager of the world is the best example of delegation of work. Everything happens under his stewardship but he remains free and at-ease.
Surrender to the Lord. Free your mind from the weight of worries and become an instrument, adopting an attitude of service. This attitude will ensure efficiency, success, and freedom from stress.